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PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Omega-3 Fatty Acid, Thrombus, Complications Of Pregnancy


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 13: Stress, Coping and Health
Introduction
Many circumstances can create stress
Some are expected and routine in course of normal life
Chapter looks at nature of stress, how people cope with it and the potential effects
According to Anisman and others, exposure to stress is common and may lead to physiological and
psychological changes
If the body is effected greatly by stress, there may be negative consequences for health
Way people in health professions think about physical illness has changed a lot in last 20 years
Traditional view of physical illness as a purely biological phenomenon has given way to
biopsychosocial model of illness
Biopsychosocial model: holds that physical illness is caused by complex interaction of biological,
psychological and sociocultural factors
Doesnt suggest that biological factors are unimportant
Simply asserts that these factors operate in psychosocial context that is also influential
Before 20th century, principle threats to health were contagious diseases ex. Smallpox, yellow
fever, polio, malaria ; however, they were improved due to nutrition, public hygiene, sanitation and
medical treatment
Chronic Diseases –develop gradually (ie. Cancer, stroke, heart disease)
Psychological factors like stress and lifestyle play key role in development of these diseases
Growing recognition that psychological factors influence physical health eventually led to
emergence of new specialty in psychology called health psychology
Health psychology: concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to promotion and maintenance
of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness
The Nature of Stress
Stress: any circumstances that threaten or are perceived as threaten ones well-being and that
thereby tax ones coping abilities
Threat may be immediate physical safety, long-range security, self-esteem, reputation, peace of
mind, or other things that one values
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Stress as an Everyday Event
Studies conducted in aftermath of natural disasters typically find elevated rates of psychological
problems and physical illness in communities affected by these disasters
Many everyday events (ie. Waiting in line, losing valuables, shopping for gifts) can also be stressful
oStudies confirm that everyday problems and minor nuisances of life are also important
forms of stress
Major and minor stressors are not entirely independent
oExample
Major Stressor =divorce
Minor Stressors = finding a lawyer, changing bank accounts, taking on new responsibilities
According to Anisman and Merali, persons response to a stressor is a function of number of
factors including type of stressor and its controllability, biological factors such as age and gender
and persons previous experience with stress
Lazarus and colleagues- developed scale to measure everyday hassles and found that routine
hassles may have important harmful effects on mental and physical health
Stress adds up
oRoutine stress at home, school, work may be separate, but collectively they can create great
strain
Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder
Experience of feeling stressed depends on what events one notices and how one chooses to appraise
or interpret them
Something that may cause stress in one person could be normal for another person
People arent objective in their appraisals of potentially stressful events
Stress lies in the eye (Actually the mind) of the beholder
Major Types of Stress
Variety of situations can be stressful for one person or another
Theorists have tried to analyze nature of stressful events and divide them into subtypes
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Four Major Types of Stress:
Frustratio
n
defn: occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is
thwarted
experience frustration when you want something but can't have it
can elicit anger and aggression
most frustrations are brief and insignificant
some frustrations can be sources of significant stress
failures and losses are two common kinds of frustrations that are
often highly stressful
Conflictunavoidable feature of everyday life
defn: occurs when 2 or more incompatible motivations or behavioural
impulses compete for expression
Freud proposed 100 years ago that internal conflicts generate
considerable psychological distress
higher levels of conflict associated with higher levels of anxiety,
depression, and physical symptoms
conflicts come in three types (Kurt Lewin)
Approach- Approach conflict : choice must be made between two
attractive goals
oleast stressful
oreasonably happy ending
omay be troublesome if it's over important decisions
Avoidance- Avoidance conflict : choice must be made between two
unattractive goals
omost unpleasant and highly stressful
Approach Avoidance conflict: choice must be made about whether to
pursue single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
ocommon and can be quite stressful
omay produce vacillation (going back and forth to make a
decision)
Changeidea that life changes represent key type of stress
life changes: any noticeable alternation in one's life that needs
readjustment
importance of life changes was demonstrated by Thomas Holmes and
Richard Rahe in 60s
otheorized that stress makes people more vulnerable to illness
opositive stress can also contribute (getting married, having
baby)
oaccording to Holmes, positive events cause stress because they
produce change
oHolmes and Rahe developed Social Readjustment Rating
Scale (SRRS)
This scale assigns numerical values to 43 major life
events. These values are supposed to reflect magnitude
of the readjustment required by each change. In using
the scale, respondents are asked to indicate how often
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