PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Observational Error, Dependent And Independent Variables, Scientific Method

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13 Feb 2016
PSY100 Labs – Practice/Sample Lab Test Questions
1. What is the scientific method? (Min. 150 words; ½ a page)
Proving causation
List the independent/dependent variables
The scientific method is used to establish causal relationships and it’s used for
physical empirical things.
2. What is the effect of X on Y while controlling for Zs? (This is the generic science
For ex: what is the effect of comprehension on reading speed while controlling for
length of paragraphs?
3. How do we control for progressive error?
4. How does the golf ball example illustrate random error? How do we control for it?
Same person hits multiple golf balls
They hit as hard as they can every time
All distances will be different, even under exact same conditions (this is random error)
How to control for Random Error: add up distances, divide by # hits to get an average
5. How do we control for progressive error in lab 1 vs 2?
Counterbalancing and randomization
We measure for randomization by taking the average
6. What is the effect of the physical size of the line (x) on the probability of saying larger (y)
while controlling for progressive error and random error (z)?
There are two dependent variables; probability of staying larger and the reaction time
Independent variable is the range and size of that comparison
7. What is the difference between Freud and Jung’s perspective on dreams?
He modifies the concepts and didn’t fully accept Freud’s theory on sexuality
Some psychologists believe that it’s important for you to analyze your dreams
This helps solve some problems
8. How does the subtractive technique measure just 1 stage of processing?
To answer this question, use the subtractive technique, you must perform an experiment
(goes through 4 stages) and you get the reaction time and then you minus the reaction
time from an experiment that only allows you to go through 3 stages instead of 4. The
difference is going to tell you how long it took you to decide.
Example: left/right vs. go (choice vs. simple reaction times)
Take your two index fingers and you have to tap whether it’s left/right that was
mentioned and in this activity, you are going through the stages of processing. It takes
the average person 350 milliseconds to go through the choice task.
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