PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Carl Jung, Peak Experience, Martina Navratilova

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18 May 2016

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1. Describe the component skills involved in reading comprehension.
Reading comprehension requires a complex interaction of cognitive skills. Reading
effectively involves multiple processes. Language skills are important for reading
comprehension. These include the skill of recognizing words, the semantic
understanding of their meaning and their syntax which requires understanding how
words can be correctly combined to form a sentence. Problem solving skills require
making inferences and learning from the text. Both a good short-term and long-term
memory also serve as the foundation upon which to lay the building blocks of solid
reading comprehension. With those basic skills already in place, the efficient reader
distinguishes him/herself by the application of more precise and interactive skills.
This provides the referential framework that facilitates understanding. There are
other cognitive resources necessary for reading and comprehension identified as
necessary for reading and understanding. Attention or the skill of selecting of
important information is necessary for reading. Consciousness (reader’s awareness of
understanding). Next, one must integrate this knowledge with the novel information
being processed – Decision making. Third, one uses the network connections in this
cognitive framework and the information in the text to make inferences about
meaning. Finally, one must recall the newly-processed information from memory to
solidify the learning and encoding process.
2. How do we validate measures of self-esteem?
Measures of self esteem that were used in Module 10 were in the form of self-
evaluation questionnaires. The most empirical method of validating these self-
evaluation questionnaires requires for a reasonable sample size (of about 100 for
example) to participate in the questionnaire. Then, the subjects are taken to a
psychiatrist for evaluation. Their opinion is considered the gold standard. If the scores
by the psychiatrist are positively correlated
The cheaper approach of scientifically validating self-evaluation questionnaires as a
measure of self-esteem was to compare scores of the new questionnaires with already
scientifically validated questionnaires. The two questionnaires that had not been
previously validated were the Hartman Colour Code and Mckay Fanning and the two
that had already been scientifically validated by the method previously mentioned
were the Rosenberg Scale and the Coopersmith inventory. If the scores of the
Hartman Colour Code and McKay Fanning questionnaires were positively correlated
with the validated ones, then we can make the inference that the measure of self
esteem of the unvalidated questionnaires is valid.
3. How does a healthy self-esteem allow you to disengage from control dramas?
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