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Ch. 11 Study guide

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Chapter 11: emotional development
The function of emotions
-Emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environments
-Fear leads to avoiding danger
-Happiness strengthen relationships
-Disgust keeps people away from things that makes them ill
Experiencing and expressing emotions
-basic emotions: universal and consist of subjective feeling, physiological change, and over
-interest, disgust, sadness, and fear
-stranger wariness appears around 6 months
-self conscious(complex) emotions such as pride, guilt, embarrassment appear later
-cultures-differ in degree of emotional expression
Recognizing and using others emotions
-by 4-6 months, infant can identify facial expressions associated with diff. emotions
-social referencing: in unfamiliar or ambiguous environment, infants look to parents for
cues to interpret situation
-during elementary school, children understand that ppl can have mixed emotions
Regulating Emotions
-regulation of emotion begins in infancy
-for example infants will look away when they encounter something frightening or confusing

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-with age children develop even more effective strategies
-children who dont regulate their emotions tend to have problems with peers
11.2 Temperament
-Temperament: behavioral styles that are fairly stable across situations and are
biologically based
-Thomas and chess identified 3 patterns: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up
-five dimensions: activity level, positive effect, persistence, inhibition, and negative affect.
Heredity and environmental contributions to temperament
-twin studies show genetic influence: identical twins more alike in most aspects of
temperament than fraternal twins
-impact of heredity depends on temperamental dimension and childs age.
-infants are mole likely to develop intense, difficult temperaments when mothers are abrupt
and lack confidence.
-Asian infants less emotional that European Canadian counterparts
Stability of Temperament
-temperament moderately stable through infancy, childhood, and adolescence
-fearful preschoolers tend to be inhibited as older child and adolescent.
-inhibted children more likely to be introverted adults
-research also reveals many instances where temperament is not related to adult
Temperament and other aspects of development
-various aspects of temperament are related to school success, peer interactions, compliance
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