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12 Dec 2010
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Chapter 11: emotional development
The function of emotions
-Emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environments
-Fear leads to avoiding danger
-Happiness strengthen relationships
-Disgust keeps people away from things that makes them ill
Experiencing and expressing emotions
-basic emotions: universal and consist of subjective feeling, physiological change, and over
behavior
-interest, disgust, sadness, and fear
-stranger wariness appears around 6 months
-self conscious(complex) emotions such as pride, guilt, embarrassment appear later
-cultures-differ in degree of emotional expression
Recognizing and using others emotions
-by 4-6 months, infant can identify facial expressions associated with diff. emotions
-social referencing: in unfamiliar or ambiguous environment, infants look to parents for
cues to interpret situation
-during elementary school, children understand that ppl can have mixed emotions
Regulating Emotions
-regulation of emotion begins in infancy
-for example infants will look away when they encounter something frightening or confusing
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-with age children develop even more effective strategies
-children who dont regulate their emotions tend to have problems with peers
11.2 Temperament
-Temperament: behavioral styles that are fairly stable across situations and are
biologically based
-Thomas and chess identified 3 patterns: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up
-five dimensions: activity level, positive effect, persistence, inhibition, and negative affect.
Heredity and environmental contributions to temperament
-twin studies show genetic influence: identical twins more alike in most aspects of
temperament than fraternal twins
-impact of heredity depends on temperamental dimension and childs age.
-infants are mole likely to develop intense, difficult temperaments when mothers are abrupt
and lack confidence.
-Asian infants less emotional that European Canadian counterparts
Stability of Temperament
-temperament moderately stable through infancy, childhood, and adolescence
-fearful preschoolers tend to be inhibited as older child and adolescent.
-inhibted children more likely to be introverted adults
-research also reveals many instances where temperament is not related to adult
personality
Temperament and other aspects of development
-various aspects of temperament are related to school success, peer interactions, compliance
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Document Summary

Emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environments. Disgust keeps people away from things that makes them ill. Basic emotions: universal and consist of subjective feeling, physiological change, and over behavior. Self conscious(complex) emotions such as pride, guilt, embarrassment appear later. By 4-6 months, infant can identify facial expressions associated with diff. emotions. Social referencing: in unfamiliar or ambiguous environment, infants look to parents for cues to interpret situation. During elementary school, children understand that ppl can have mixed emotions. For example infants will look away when they encounter something frightening or confusing www. notesolution. com. With age children develop even more effective strategies. Children who don"t regulate their emotions tend to have problems with peers. Temperament: behavioral styles that are fairly stable across situations and are biologically based. Thomas and chess identified 3 patterns: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up. Five dimensions: activity level, positive effect, persistence, inhibition, and negative affect.

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