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Ch. 12 Study guide

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Chapter 12: Understanding self and others
Origins of self recognition
-by 15 months, infants begin to show self-recognition in mirror task
-at 18-24months, children look more at photos of self than others and refer to self by name
or personal pronoun
-awareness of self extends to an understanding of ownership
-self concept comes from self-awareness
-preschoolers mention concrete characteristics such as physical characterisitics,
preferences, possessions, and competencies
-at 6-8 years, children begin to mention emotions, social groups, and comparisions to other
-adolescents mention attitudes, personality traits, religious/political beliefs, variation with
contest, and an orientation to the future.
-adolescents use hypothetical reasoning to experiment with different selves.
-Adolescence characterized by self-abosrption, imaginary audience, personal fable, and
illusion of invulnerability
-stages of identity: diffusion, forclosure, moratorium, and achievement
-stages of career development: crystallization, specification and implementation
-most teens dont experience conflict and turmoil
Self Esteem
-one common measure: self-perception profile for children
-measures overall self-esteem as well as self esteem in 5 specific areas:
-scholastic competence
-athletic competence
-social acceptable
-behavioral conduct
-pshycial appearance
Developmental change in self-esteem
-self-esteem is highest in preschooler
-drops during the elementary school years due to social comaprisions
-self-steem sometimes drops during the move to middle school
-pattern of change in self-esteem caries for different domains
-self-sesteem becomes more differentiated
Sources of self-steem
-children have higher self-sesteem when parents are nurturing and involved and establish
rules concerning discipline
-comparisions with other (particularly peers)
-self efteem is high when others view positively and low when other view negatively
-gifted children in gifted classes may have lower class
-praise should focus on effort rather than ability
-when faced with an apparent setback in their work:
-children praised for their effort will work harder
-children praised for their ability will not try as hard
Low Self-Esteem: cause or consequence
-chil;dren with low self esteem are more likely to have problems with peers, have
psychological disorders, be involved in bullying and aggressive behavior and do poorly in
-sometimes its difficult to establish cause and effect relations regarding low self-esteem
Describing others
-descrtip[tion of others follow similar course as descriptions of self.
-descriptions that include appearance and possessions become less common
-between 8 and 14 yrs, descriptons of personality traits increase
-by 5 yrs, children use info in descprtions to predict others’ behaviors
Understanding what others think
-preschoolers are egoecetric
-according to Selman. Perseptcitve taking increases with age and depeneds on cognitive
-selmans 5 stages: undifferentiated, social-informational, slef-reflective, third person, and
-children with good perspective-taking skills get along better with their peers
-prejudice: a negative view of others based on group membership
-preschoolers and kindergartners attribute many positive traits to their own group
-usually declines some during elemenatary school, but increases during adolescence due to
exposure to prejudice around them and an increased preference for own group.
-can reduce prejudice by encouraging friendly constructive contact between groups and role