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Final

Lecture notes for the entire semester from September to December; Red writing are things said by professor.

49 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY210H5
Professor
E Glenn Schellenberg

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Phylogeny: evolution
Ontogeny: development (individual)
Darwin (baby biographer): his interest in:
|
Making details about his child in a systematic way and recording them
Very anecdotal
Systematic records
|
Historical perspectives
{
Pre-arranged scheme
He established norms
Limited to physiological growth
Maturational theories
Take more consideration of experience
Adaptive survival value
Critical period -time in development when learning can take place
¸
Sensitive period -time in development when learning is more easy or
likely
¸
Imprinting (Lorenz)
Evolutionary origins of behaviour
Ethological theories
Phrenology
Modularity theories
Biological
|
Freud
Personality has three components -id, ego, superego
Development influenced by early forms of childhood sexuality
Libido -innate sexual drive; focus of gratification changes over development
Too much or too little gratification get fixated at a stage in development
Psychosexual theory
Erikson
Personality: 8 stages of adapted functioning (pg. 12)
Social context considered
Each stage has a unique crisis or challenge
Psychosocial theory
Psychodynamic
|
Relatively permanent changes in behaviour that result from experience
Watson, Skinner, Pavlov
Classical and operant conditioning -- (reinforced -more likely to occur; punished -less
likely)
US (food) --> UR (salivating)
CS (bell) --> CR (salivating) (connecting arrows b/w US and CS and UR and CR)
Behaviourism
Bandura
Learning through observation and imitation
Social Learning/Cognitive Theory
Learning
|
Child has active role in understanding the world
Qualitative reorganisation of understanding at the different stages
Piaget
Cognitive-Developmental
|
Theoretical perspectives
{
Intro to Developmental Psych
September-08-09
5:47 PM
PSY210 -Developmental.one (On 2-22-2010) Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Qualitative reorganisation of understanding at the different stages
Computer analogy
|
response
Sensory memory --> short-term memory --><-- long-term memory
Hardware = biological
Software = experience
These two things improve our development
Development is considered to be continuous vs stage-like in these theories
Information processing become more effective with development
Information-processing theories
Consider role of society and cultural development in a focused way
Expressed role of language and learning from older members of the culture
Vygotsky
Socio-historical theory
Everday environment in all aspects
Ecological systems theory
Slide from page 475
Contextual
|
These theories are neither right nor wrong -just a question of emphasis on what develops?
{
Learning: a set of responses
|
Ethologists: adaptive behaviour
|
Psychodynamic: identity
|
Information Processing theories: mental structure and strategies fro recording
|
Piaget: a set of cognitive structures
|
Contextual: mutually supportive behaviours and cultural relationships
|
Really its just the nature of the question that is changing
{
Text: predictability; how behaviour in one age predicts behaviour in another age
Quantitative (curve) vs. Qualitative change (step function)
Development continuity (#1)
|
Theoretical controversy on how nature and the environment determine behaviour
Nature vs nurture (#2)
|
Organismic -change/development is stimulated from within child (active) -child
learns language because he has drive to learn language
Mechanistic -change stimulated by environment
Two different views:
Text...
Changes common to all children -normally developing children
Differences among children
Different emphasis
Individual differences
Children as active or passive (#3)
|
How does development in one domain affect development in another?
Text..
Modularity of mind
Chomsky thinks that humans are born with language module
Gardner --> multiple intelligences
Interactions between domains (#4)
|
Major themes -alternatives
{
Manipulated..
1)
IV
i.
DV
ii.
Definitions
1.
Psychological research
{
PSY210 -Developmental.one (On 2-22-2010) Page 2
www.notesolution.com
Manipulated..
1)
Measured
1)
DV
ii.
Specification
1)
Operational...
iii.
Construct validity
1)
Concurrent validity
2)
Validity
iv.
Test-retest
1)
Reliability
v.
CONS
a)
Observer bias
b)
Observer influences behaviour of subject being studied/participant reactivity
c)
Observe...
a)
Real-life behaviours, antecedents, consequences
i)
PROS
b)
Possible confounding variables because situation is not controlled; so
association observed may actually be due to a third variable
i)
Rare behaviours may not occur during the time period of observation
ii)
CONS
c)
Naturalistic observation
1)
Behaviours...
a)
Researcher has more control
i)
Rare behaviours more likely because experimenter is in control
ii)
PRO
b)
Kids may not act as they do in real life
i)
CON
c)
Structured observation
2)
Systematic observation
i.
Researcher has more control*
a)
PRO
1)
Task and context may be too artificial
a)
CON
2)
Create tasks***
ii.
CON -kids that are unable to read
a)
Questionnaires
1)
Quick way to collect data
One.
PRO
i)
Child understands? Responds according to perceived expectations
of researcher
One.
CON
ii)
can be structured; same sequence of questions administered orally to all
participants
a)
Interactive --> novel insights
One.
PRO
i)
Cannot make systematic comparisons because everyone may be
getting a different set of questions
One.
Questions you follow up on may be influenced by researcher's bias
Two.
CON
ii)
Clinical interview -not structured; open ended (questions modified according to
child's response)
b)
Interviews
2)
Self-reports
iii.
Statistical...
1)
Meta-analysis
iv.
Measurement
2.
PSY210 -Developmental.one (On 2-22-2010) Page 3
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Introto Developmental Psych September-08-09 5:47PM { Historicalperspectives Darwin(babybiographer):hisinterestin: Phylogeny:evolution Ontogeny:development(individual) Systematicrecords Makingdetailsabouthischildinasystematicwayandrecordingthem Veryanecdotal { Theoreticalperspectives Biological Maturationaltheories ArnoldGesell-mostimportantpersoninthisarea Pre-arrangedscheme Heestablishednorms Limitedtophysiologicalgrowth Ethologicaltheories Takemoreconsiderationofexperience Evolutionaryoriginsofbehaviour Z Adaptivesurvivalvalue Z Imprinting(Lorenz) Criticalperiod-timeindevelopmentwhenlearningcantakeplace Sensitiveperiod-timeindevelopmentwhenlearningismoreeasyor likely Modularitytheories Phrenology Psychodynamic Psychosexualtheory Freud Personalityhasthreecomponents-id,ego,superego Developmentinfluencedbyearlyformsofchildhoodsexuality Libido-innatesexualdrive;focusofgratificationchangesoverdevelopment Toomuch ortoolittlegratificationgetfixatedatastageindevelopment Psychosocialtheory Erikson Personality:8stagesofadaptedfunctioning(pg.12) Socialcontextconsidered Eachstage hasa uniquecrisisorchallenge Learning Relativelypermanentchangesinbehaviourthatresultfromexperience Behaviourism Watson,Skinner,Pavlov Classicalandoperantconditioning--(reinforced-morelikelytooccur;punished-less likely) US(food)-->UR (salivating) CS(bell)-->CR(salivating) (connectingarrowsbwUSandCS and UR and CR) SocialLearningCognitiveTheory Bandura Learningthroughobservationandimitation Cognitive-Developmental Piaget Childhasactiveroleinunderstandingtheworld Qualitativereorganisationofunderstandingatthedifferentstages www.notesolution.com Qualitativereorganisationofunderstandingatthedifferentstages Information-processingtheories Computeranalogy Sensorymemory-->short-termmemory-->multipleintelligences { Psychologicalresearch 1. Definitions i. IV 1) Manipulated.. ii. DV www.notesolution.com 1) Manipulated.. ii. DV 1) Measured iii. Operational... 1) Specification iv. Validity 1) Constructvalidity 2) Concurrentvalidity v. Reliability 1) Test-retest 2. Measurement i. Systematicobservation a) CONS b) Observerbias c) Observerinfluencesbehaviourofsubjectbeingstudiedparticipantreactivity 1) Naturalisticobservation a) Observe... b) PROS i) Real-lifebehaviours,antecedents,consequences c) CONS i) Possibleconfoundingvariablesbecausesituationisnotcontrolled;so associationobservedmayactuallybeduetoathirdvariable ii) Rarebehavioursmaynotoccurduringthetimeperiodofobservation 2) Structuredobservation a) Behaviours... b) PRO i) Researcherhasmorecontrol ii) Rarebehavioursmorelikelybecauseexperimenterisincontrol c) CON i) Kidsmaynotact as theydoin reallife ii. Createtasks*** 1) PRO a) Researcherhasmorecontrol* 2) CON a) Taskand contextmaybetoo artificial iii. Self-reports 1) Questionnaires a) CON-kidsthatareunabletoread 2) Interviews a) canbe structured;samesequenceofquestionsadministeredorallytoall participants i) PRO One. Quickwaytocollectdata ii) CON One. Childunderstands?Respondsaccordingtoperceivedexpectations ofresearcher b) Clinicalinterview-notstructured;openended(questionsmodifiedaccordingto childsresponse) i) PRO One. Interactive-->novelinsights ii) CON One. Cannotmakesystematiccomparisonsbecauseeveryonemaybe gettingadifferentsetofquestions Two. Questionsyoufollowuponmaybeinfluencedbyresearchersbias iv. Meta-analysis 1) Statistical... www.notesolution.com
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