Lecture notes for the entire semester from September to December; Red writing are things said by professor.

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School
Department
Course
Phylogeny: evolution
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Ontogeny: development (individual)
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Darwin (baby biographer): his interest in:
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Making details about his child in a systematic way and recording them
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Very anecdotal
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Systematic records
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Historical perspectives
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Pre-arranged scheme
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He established norms
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Limited to physiological growth
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Maturational theories
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Take more consideration of experience
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Adaptive survival value
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Critical period -time in development when learning can take place
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Sensitive period -time in development when learning is more easy or
likely
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Imprinting (Lorenz)
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Evolutionary origins of behaviour
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Ethological theories
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Phrenology
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Modularity theories
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Biological
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Freud
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Personality has three components -id, ego, superego
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Development influenced by early forms of childhood sexuality
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Libido -innate sexual drive; focus of gratification changes over development
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Too much or too little gratification get fixated at a stage in development
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Psychosexual theory
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Erikson
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Personality: 8 stages of adapted functioning (pg. 12)
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Social context considered
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Each stage has a unique crisis or challenge
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Psychosocial theory
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Psychodynamic
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Relatively permanent changes in behaviour that result from experience
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Watson, Skinner, Pavlov
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Classical and operant conditioning -- (reinforced -more likely to occur; punished -less
likely)
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US (food) --> UR (salivating)
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CS (bell) --> CR (salivating) (connecting arrows b/w US and CS and UR and CR)
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Behaviourism
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Bandura
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Learning through observation and imitation
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Social Learning/Cognitive Theory
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Learning
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Child has active role in understanding the world
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Qualitative reorganisation of understanding at the different stages
Piaget
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Cognitive-Developmental
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Theoretical perspectives
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Intro to Developmental Psych
September-08-09
5:47 PM
PSY210 -Developmental.one (On 2-22-2010) Page 1
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Qualitative reorganisation of understanding at the different stages
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Computer analogy
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response
Sensory memory --> short-term memory --><-- long-term memory
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Hardware = biological
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Software = experience
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These two things improve our development
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Development is considered to be continuous vs stage-like in these theories
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Information processing become more effective with development
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Information-processing theories
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Consider role of society and cultural development in a focused way
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Expressed role of language and learning from older members of the culture
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Vygotsky
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Socio-historical theory
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Everday environment in all aspects
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Ecological systems theory
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Slide from page 475
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Contextual
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These theories are neither right nor wrong -just a question of emphasis on what develops?
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Learning: a set of responses
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Ethologists: adaptive behaviour
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Psychodynamic: identity
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Information Processing theories: mental structure and strategies fro recording
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Piaget: a set of cognitive structures
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Contextual: mutually supportive behaviours and cultural relationships
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Really its just the nature of the question that is changing
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Text: predictability; how behaviour in one age predicts behaviour in another age
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Quantitative (curve) vs. Qualitative change (step function)
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Development continuity (#1)
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Theoretical controversy on how nature and the environment determine behaviour
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Nature vs nurture (#2)
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Organismic -change/development is stimulated from within child (active) -child
learns language because he has drive to learn language
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Mechanistic -change stimulated by environment
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Two different views:
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Text...
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Changes common to all children -normally developing children
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Differences among children
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Different emphasis
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Individual differences
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Children as active or passive (#3)
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How does development in one domain affect development in another?
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Text..
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Modularity of mind
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Chomsky thinks that humans are born with language module
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Gardner --> multiple intelligences
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Interactions between domains (#4)
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Major themes -alternatives
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Manipulated..
1)
IV
i.
DV
ii.
Definitions
1.
Psychological research
{
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Manipulated..
1)
Measured
1)
DV
ii.
Specification
1)
Operational...
iii.
Construct validity
1)
Concurrent validity
2)
Validity
iv.
Test-retest
1)
Reliability
v.
CONS
a)
Observer bias
b)
Observer influences behaviour of subject being studied/participant reactivity
c)
Observe...
a)
Real-life behaviours, antecedents, consequences
i)
PROS
b)
Possible confounding variables because situation is not controlled; so
association observed may actually be due to a third variable
i)
Rare behaviours may not occur during the time period of observation
ii)
CONS
c)
Naturalistic observation
1)
Behaviours...
a)
Researcher has more control
i)
Rare behaviours more likely because experimenter is in control
ii)
PRO
b)
Kids may not act as they do in real life
i)
CON
c)
Structured observation
2)
Systematic observation
i.
Researcher has more control*
a)
PRO
1)
Task and context may be too artificial
a)
CON
2)
Create tasks***
ii.
CON -kids that are unable to read
a)
Questionnaires
1)
Quick way to collect data
One.
PRO
i)
Child understands? Responds according to perceived expectations
of researcher
One.
CON
ii)
can be structured; same sequence of questions administered orally to all
participants
a)
Interactive --> novel insights
One.
PRO
i)
Cannot make systematic comparisons because everyone may be
getting a different set of questions
One.
Questions you follow up on may be influenced by researcher's bias
Two.
CON
ii)
Clinical interview -not structured; open ended (questions modified according to
child's response)
b)
Interviews
2)
Self-reports
iii.
Statistical...
1)
Meta-analysis
iv.
Measurement
2.
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Document Summary

Making details about his child in a systematic way and recording them. Arnold gesell - most important person in this area. Critical period - time in development when learning can take place. Sensitive period - time in development when learning is more easy or likely. Personality has three components - id, ego, superego. Development influenced by early forms of childhood sexuality. Libido - innate sexual drive; focus of gratification changes over development. Too much or too little gratification get fixated at a stage in development. Each stage has a unique crisis or challenge. Relatively permanent changes in behaviour that result from experience. Classical and operant conditioning -- (reinforced - more likely to occur; punished - less likely) Cs (bell) --> cr (salivating) (connecting arrows b/w us and cs and ur and cr) Child has active role in understanding the world. Qualitative reorganisation of understanding at the different stages www. notesolution. com. Qualitative reorganisation of understanding at the different stages.

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