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Midterm

PSY230H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Physical Attractiveness, Agreeableness, Extraversion And Introversion


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H5
Professor
Ulrich Schimmack
Study Guide
Midterm

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General Instructions about the test.
1. The term tests use SCANTRONS.
2. You are responsible for bringing a B2 pencil and eraser so that you can make changes on your
scantron.
3. The term test will be based on 25 multiple-choice questions.
4. Each question will have five response options (A,B,C,D,E).
5. After you entered all your answers on the scantron, please check that you have answered all
questions and that your answers correspond to the questions.
6. When you return your scantron make sure that you have your name and student ID on it. You
have to return the questions with the scantron.
7. I understand that unfortunately some multiple-choice questions may be ambiguous and
unclear (especially new ones). To address this concern, I allow for 2 questions that you
consider unfair, unclear, or simply cannot answer. For those 2 questions, you can mark F on
your scantron and it will be scored correct. Make sure that you do not use more than 2 Fs.
Any additional F is scored as an incorrect answer. The 2F policy also means that I will not
respond to complaints about unclear or unfair questions.
8. Don’t panic. You have about 50 minutes for 25 questions and 30 minutes for the essay
(although you can allocate your time differently). Read each question carefully, eliminate
obviously false answers, and then go with the answer that makes most sense to you. Avoid second
guessing yourself. Often the first intuition is more likely to be correct than your second guess.
Don’t choose the answer that seems to make less sense because you think I am trying to trick you.
There are no trick questions even if some of them seem tricky to you.
General information about multiple-choice questions
Questions like these will NOT be on the exam.
There will be NO questions about researchers’ names or publication years. For example:
Who compiled the first list of trait words?
A. Eysenck
B. Cattell
C. Costa & McCrae
D. Allport and Odbert
E. Goldberg
There will be NO questions about dates. For example:
In which year did Allport and Odbert compile the list of trait words?
A. 1920
B. 1936
C. 1950
D. 1980
E. 2000

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There WILL BE questions like these that use numbers as options because verbal labels
about correlations are ambiguous. [Even if you do not know the number, your general
sense about the strength of the correlation is sufficient to get the right answer.]
What is the correlation between height and weight?
A. 0-.1
B. .1-.3
C. .3-.7
D. .7-.9
E. .9 – 1.0
Study List
The first test is based on all material in the textbook related to lectures 1 to 8.
To get an A+ it is best to read and remember everything. For strategic studying, you should focus
on material that is highlighted on lecture slides that is illustrated with graphs and that I spent a lot
of time talking about in class.
Make sure that you understand the meaning of technical terms that are highlighted in the textbook
in bold. If the textbook does not explain the meaning properly, look it up on the web.
Important Concepts
Lecture 1
Goal of personality psychology: Classify and examine the causes and consequences of
individual differences
Approaches: Focus on individuals or variables
Ideographic (person-centered)
Nomothetic (variable-centered)
Difference between personality psychology and other disciplines
Individual differences versus everybody is the same
Lectures 2/3
Correlation coefficient (r) –
- -varies from -1 to 1; indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two
variables
Effect size
- reflects strength of an effect independent of sample size
- Explained variance (r2)
- Binominal Effect Size Display (.5 + r/2)
Measurement error Variance in a personality measure that is not due to actual individual
differences in the trait being measured
Reliability
the amount of variance not due to measurement error in a personality measure
- Estimating reliability: retest reliability/Internal consistency
Validity
- a measure is valid if it measures what it is intended to measure
(e.g., an intelligence test measures intelligence, not creativity)
- construct validation: provide evidence for validity
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