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PSY240H5- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H5
Professor
Hywel Morgan
Study Guide
Final

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UTM
PSY240H5
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSY240: Abnormal Psychology Monday, January 11th, 2016
Lecture 1: Introduction to Abnormal Behaviour
An action may be abnormal but not necessarily pathological
Psychopathology is easy to recognize but difficult to define
lots of symptom overlap
Lack definitive tests to identify psychopathological illnesses
Ex. Depression
DSM4: Sad demeanor over a long period of time
DSM5: Doesn’t have to be a long period of time but must be intense
Single occurrence of abnormal behaviour can be considered pathological i.e. suicide
attempt; also over a long period of time i.e. washing hands for 40 minutes everyday
4 Criteria to Identify (Quantify) Abnormal Behaviour
1. Statistical Criteria: Measure using numbers
a. Self-report: quick, easy BUT there may be some subjective bias
b. Behaviour that deviates statistically from the norm
i. Must consider cultural norms
c. Problems
i. Behaviour is variable; most changes cannot be explained therefore
difficult to measure and difficult to predict
ii. Some deviant behaviours are favourable i.e. high intelligence
iii. Unfavourable behaviours that most people participate in i.e. drug use
d. Persistence, significance, age of onset and other factors may override statistical
criteria
2. Cultural norms
a. most cultures consider schizophrenia as abnormal as it hinders interaction
w/others
b. most cultures acknowledge phobias as disorders
c. Substance abuse varies
i. Western cultures >>> Eastern cultures
d. Content differs between cultures depending on level of
e. Behaviours that reduce, interfere or disrupt the individual’s personal and social
adjustment; render you disfunctional; can’t cope
f. Cultural norms are often situationally defined i.e. taking drugs, disclosing
personal information
3. Developmental norms
a. If some behaviours have not developed by a certain age, there may be some
psychopathology interfering with development
4. Frequency, intensity, duration
a. If all three occur in greater than normal amounts, the behaviour is abnormal i.e.
gambling addiction
b. Frequency: too many times
c. Intensity: too much; disproportionate reaction to situation
d. Duration: Too long; cannot stop behaviour
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PSY240: Abnormal Psychology Monday, January 11th, 2016
Etiological Models of Abnormal Behaviour (Causes)
Medical-disease Models (Primary model): assume abnormal behaviour is a biological
disorder; some underlying physiological disorder (usually related to the brain)
Genetic Models: What is it in your genes that makes you predisposed to
psychopathology?
Statistics show that genetics plays a greater role in the development of
psychopathology than environment
Usually culmination of various genes
Biochemical Models: Issues with brain chemistry
Track abnormal levels of neurotransmitters and hormones
Monoamines partly responsible for depression (too little)
Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine
Neurophysiological Models: Malfunctioning brain
Know that different parts of the brain perform different functions
The part of the brain that correlates to the malfunction behaviour is not
functioning properly i.e. prefrontal cortex for kids with ADHD
Can either train different areas of the brain to compensate for
dysfunctional brain area (neuroplasticity) or use chemicals
Psychoanalytical Model: Self-generated psychopathology
Environmental Model: Learned behaviours; need to be retrained and introspect
Sociocultural Models: Emphasize social and cultural determinants
pressures of cultures and society can lead to detrimental behaviour
Look at socioeconomic status, religious affiliations, etc.
Broad generalities
Mostly correlational studies
Learning Models: Abnormal behaviours are learned
Reconditioning used to treat it
Molded by environment
No consideration of internal processes
NOTE: Sociocultural + Learning = Cognitive Behavioural Model
Humanistic Models: Presumes you have all of the tools to cure yourself
Thought something faulty
Touchy feely psychology
Explores conscious and unconscious skills
Client has to be able to introspect; respects the worth of all people
Random
Can you use psychotherapy to change brain brain chemistry >>>> yes
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