PSY270 TEST 2 QUESTIONS
In the functional-equivalence hypothesis, Finke described five ways that images can
be similar to physical objects. List and explain three of these ways.(3)
•Transformational equivalence – imagined and physical movements use the same laws
•Spatial equivalence – arrangement of elements in images are the same as those in
•Implicit encoding – information about physical objects can be attained from images
even though not stored explicitly
•Structural equivalence – construction of images and physical objects uses similar
•Perceptual equivalence – similar brain mechanisms are used for imagery and
What are the three levels of categories mentioned in the prototype theory and give
•Basic level: It is not very specific but not too broad. Like furniture.
•Superordinate: a broad category, a level above basic. Like a chair.
•Subordinate: one level below basic; which is very specific. Like a rocking chair.
What are three problems with the classical view of categorization?
•All categories do not have a list of defining features. It is difficult to classify
•We as humans may just be bad at categorizing.
•We can give something a typicality rating.
•We categorize typical exemplars faster than atypical ones.
•We generate typical exemplars more that atypical ones.
How does what we know or learn affect what we remember? (in terms of theories).
The two main theories describing this are decay theory and the interference theory.
Accessibility—how much we gain access available information
Autobiographical memory-memories of your history.
Middle ages adults usually remember things from their youth and early-adult periods
better than more recent past events.
Availability-information stored in long term memory
Consolidation-integrating new information into stored information
Constructive-prior experience affects how we recall things and what we actually recall
Decay-when a person forgets things due to time.
Decay theory-information is forgotten because of the gradual disappearance, not the
displacement of the memory.
Distortions- when your memories are not accurate. There are seven Schacter’s “7 sins”
•Transience-memory fades quickly.
•Absent-mindedness- ex. burshing your teeth after already having done so.
•Blocking-ex.tip-of the tongue.
•Misattribution-cannot remember what you heard or you think you saw something
you didn’t really see. (ex. eyewitness).
•Suggestibility-people are susceptible to suggestion.
•Bias-people are biased in their recall, such as people who are experiencing
chronic pain are more likely to remember past pain even if they didn’t experience
•Persistence-people seem to remember consequential circumstances. Ex. someone
with many successes and 1 failure may remember that single failure.
Distributed practice-learning where many sessions are placed over time. Memory is
good in this practice. This is because we learn in variable context and because of REM
In the functional-equivalence hypothesis, finke described five ways that images can be similar to physical objects. List and explain three of these ways. (3: transformational equivalence. Imagined and physical movements use the same laws: spatial equivalence. Arrangement of elements in images are the same as those in of motion physical objects. Implicit encoding even though not stored explicitly processes. perception: perceptual equivalence, structural equivalence. Information about physical objects can be attained from images. Construction of images and physical objects uses similar. Similar brain mechanisms are used for imagery and. What are the three levels of categories mentioned in the prototype theory and give examples: basic level: it is not very specific but not too broad. Like furniture: superordinate: a broad category, a level above basic. Like a chair: subordinate: one level below basic; which is very specific. What are three problems with the classical view of categorization: all categories do not have a list of defining features.