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PSY309H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Pubmed, Likert Scale, Observer-Expectancy Effect

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Erika Carlson
Study Guide

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Psy309 – Test 1 Notes 2016-02-27 10:07 PM
Lecture 1
An empirical approach, relies on systemic observations to gain
Cannot rely on common sense or instincts
Ear Method, a experimental method in which device records verbal
behavior throughout the day (Example: records 30 seconds every 9
Probabistic, we do not confirm we are right but use evidence to
show our conclusions are probably correct or most correct
Public verification: systemic observations or experiments are
conducted and record in ways that others can duplicate the work
o Report all types of measures and anything recorded
o Prevents false information being presented
o Allows self correction errors in research
o possible research may have unique conditions that only works
in a single situation and not others
Our hypothesis must be testable and refutable and positive
o Possible to see the opposite effect so it is falsifiable
o Positive: hypothesis explores whether an effect exists
Inductive Reasoning: observe specific patterns and try to develop a
general theory
Deductive Reasoning: observe general theory and develop a specific
3 Goals and Claims of Behavior Research
Describe, make claim about behavior frequencies
o How many times does violence occur, suffer from depression,
o Ensure that this behavior occurs in many people
o Also describe the duration of how long a behavior occurs
Predict, make claim about associations
o Association between different variables
! Example: aggression and poverty

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o We can predict that if we observe variable A then it is possible
variable B will occur
! Example: Does IQ scores predict final grades
Explain, make causal claims
o Example: does low or high status make people aggressive
Example: Research on Bias
Grade 6 Study, teachers gave females lower math grades than an
external teacher who had no knowledge of gender
Describe: girls do better than boys in middle school but switches in
high school
Predict: parents education background predict the effect of the bias
Explain: teachers who know the gender of their student mark tests
with a bias
o Children with mothers who are well educated are less effected
o Bias can be done unconsciously
Consider 4 Validities
Construct Validity: measuring what we think we are measuring
o Does our measure correctly measure what we want to
Internal Validity: eliminate third variables or other explanations
o Example: does video games cause aggression? It could be
that aggressive people play video games or a third variable
such as parents are neglectful which causes aggression
External Validity: are findings generalizable to other people in
similar settings
Statistical Validity: is effect size large, sufficient and is power
Developing a Research Project
There are various brainstorming tools we may use to think of an
o Observing behaviors around us
o Solving practical life problem
o Reverse direction of causality

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! Does rejection lead to aggression or other way around
o Going on popular media outlets, psychological organizations
websites or journal articles
Fraud: explicit effort to falsify or misrepresent data
o Replication has to be possible to verify research
o Represent methodology accurately, ensure all measures are
o Some researchers may just hide counter evidence and
present supporting evidence
o Avoid overstating findings
! Do not make causal claims in a correlation study
Plagiarism: using someone else’s ideas or work as your own
o Repeat parts of others work even with a citation
o Changing a few words even with a citation
o Changing words completely but keeping structure and order
of ideas from another even with a citation
How to avoid plagiarism
o Rephrase own words with own structure and citation
o Identify sources of ideas, words, information that is not your
o Identify direct quotes
o Complete reference list
o Peer Review: people will read work and decide if it should be
published or not
Conducting Ethical Research Proposal
A lot of experiments in the past would be considered unethical
Monster Study, orphan children placed into 2 groups
o Control group has positive speech therapy and negative group
would be yelled at for any wrong doing
o Children in negative group developed psychological damage
and continued speech problems
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