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adult development and aging- summary

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Giampaolo Moraglia

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In the past, it was believed that development that occurs in young people has positive gains
while adults only age which is characterized by losses (they slow down and must adjust).
Old Age is related to decline= invariant, it happens to everyone in the same way. The
question that remains is, is old age only about declines? Or does development continue past
maturity until old age?
Is there adult development or only age related decline?
Aging is not a disease, its a normal part of life.
Primary aging
Ex. Menopause, slower reaction time, memory decline (processes that normally accompany
Secondary aging
Ex. Dimentia- correlated with age (more likely to occur as one gets older, but is not a
normal part of aging)
Tertiary aging
Ex. A few months before death, one experiences a sudden decline in conditions, which can
predict death
Partitions of the lifecycle are arbitrary, these vary across different societies and different
historial periods
Partitions are accomplished by using so-called markers, which can be
Biological: easiest to measure
Ex. Achievement of sexual maturity, puberty: signals ones entry into adulthood, completion
of physical growth (benchmark of maturity, but is not sufficient to determine this)
Psychological: meeting emotional and mental levels of development: being able to have long
term plans
Sociological: taking on adult roles, becoming parents, being independent. Not an accurate
marker because a lot of variability exists among individuals- reach different stages (such as
becoming a parent, retiring, or becoming a granparent) at different times in their life.
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-none of the benchmarks ALONE can mark adulthood- there isnt a clear, universal
criteria to justify the entry into adulthood (ex. It doesnt convert to a single age
cohort- driving/voting ages change across different places
-Ex. Biological changes: loss of reproductivity- is used by some (ex. Women) to end
adulthood but it cannot be applied to men, because some men do not reach this stage
-Physical signs of adulthood: unreliable, because they may appear early, may appear
late, or may not appear at all
-The belief that people gain wisdom as they grow older does not match with the
results of empirical research. Attempting to distinguish levels of adults, based on a
reliable method, is though to do universally
-Chronological age is not a reliable means for determining maturity
-The distribution of populations until recently, had alot of newborns, the number of
older aged adults was a small number
-Recent: young people and old people are being represented equally. Why? Because
the duration of life has increased, less children being produced, therefore the
population is becoming evenly distributed- pyramid will turn into the shape of a
-The pyramid which many are familiar with: contains alot of babies and less elderly
-People aged 65 and over are growing more rapidly
-People aged 85 and above are growing more rapidly
Cohort: all of us are apart of it, the size of the cohort impacts our chances of success in life-
the smaller the cohort is, the better it will be to do well. (there is more opportunities for
advancement because less competition exists)
Usa 2.09; europe 1.05, japan 1.23, singapore 1.09,
Fertility rate in canada is below 2.1 babies- which is the replacement rate needed in order
to keep a population level stable. Because a set of parents have two people, and therefore 2
kids are needed to replace the parents, however since this is not being met in canada, in
order to keep the population stable, the immigration level will increase
Foot and others said that despite immigration into canada, the population would increase
because Canada has a high birth rate- even though women are having few kids, there are
alot of women in their prime child bearing years who can have kids. Therefore, even if the
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