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PSY313H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Pragmatism, Complex Differential Form

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Giampaolo Moraglia
Study Guide

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Parenthood, Role changes, Marital Satisfaction
Rise in life expectancy and divorce
A couples joint responsibilities as parents can affect their own relationship
Marital satisfaction follows a u-shaped curve: early high point, declines until
late middle age, rises again through first part of late adulthood
Least happy time= when couples are heavily involved in raising children and
Positive aspects of marriage (cooperation, discussion) follow U shape pattern
Negative aspects like anger, disagreement tend to decline (this could because
these marriages end in separation)
Research showed that marital satisfaction exists in a U shape- d
During the first 20-24 years of marriage, the longer the marriage has lasted,
the less satisfied they tend to me
But in late 30-40s years of marriage, couple remains very satisfied
THREE SECTIONS OF THE U SHAPED CURVE: early, middle, later years
When children come, couples may experience dissatisfaction
Spouses with children, especially if they had them early in marriage, or those
with many children, show steeper decline in dissatisfaction
Marriages that breakdown, tend to involve younger individuals, less
educated, less income, have been married for a short time
Mothers with babies that have difficult temperament have a hard time
Those with a lot of pre-baby images tend to be more disappointed with post-
baby reality because they didnt have accurate expectations
Women who think baby will improve marriage, suffer

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U shaped curve hits bottom during first part of middle years, when children
become teens
Identity issues of midlife conflict with adolescent issues women feel more
feelings of independence/power as they dont have much to do with raising
Communication between couples can reduce stress of physical signs of aging,
loss of sex drive
In a good marriage, couples can spend extra time on eachother, in a shaky
marriage, problems arise, in an empty nest, couple realizes they have less in
common with eachother and try to figure out whether they want to stay
Couples in 60s are more likely to call their marriage satisfying- perhaps
because marriage has improved, or because they have worked out their
differences, or because they say it as a way of justifying the fact that they
stayed together for so long
Couples handle problems due to mutual supportiveness: comes from 3
elements of marriage: intimacy (emotional and sexual), interdependence
(share resources/ tasks) and partners sense of belonging to each others
Couple may find more interest in each other
After 70, people may consider themselves less happy However women may not
get the warmth and affection she needs- caring for a disabled spouse can
make one angry, isolated- therefore needs friends and needs to be optimisitic
Change in roles- ex. Who does house work, can create differences
Increasing trend: perhaps because people want to focus on careers, feel
comfortable around adults
Dont think they’ll be a good parent

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Dont want to deal with the financial burden
Women think they’ll become less physically attractive with a kid, want to
enjoy a adult lifestyle
Some women may experience regret, may report a lack of support
Chapter 6- continued
What is creativity?
Children may show creative potential: but what matters in adults is
creative performance- what and how much a mind produces
Its the product of biological, social, personal and cultural forces
It emerges from a dynamic interaction among the creator, rules/techniques of
the domain, and colleagues who work in the domain
Exceptional talents arent born, but rather made- require training and practise
One approach: says creative achievements come from a deep knowledge of a subject,
intrinsic motivation to work hard (not for external rewards) and a strong emotional
attachment to work (can persevere during obstacles)
Overtraining in a genre can stir up creativity, but that versatility along with
expertise- can help
Creative people= self-starters, risk takers, independant, nonconformist,
unconventional, flexible, open to new ideas and experiences
Develops over a lifetime in a social context, not always in nurturing environments
Can arise from diverse experiences that arent conventional
The three aspects of intelligence identified by Sternberg, may play a role in
the relationship between intelligence and creativity:
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