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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Slide 44
{
Graph that illustrates the relative time of origin of various closely related groups
|
Cladogram
{
Origins of the Human Brain and Behavior (50:00)
Excellent color vision, enhanced depth perception
|
Hand-eye coordination
|
Females produce one infant per pregnancy
|
{
Humanlike ancestors that diverged from the ape lineage
|
Changes in hand structure and brain structure
|
Hominids
{
Origins of the Human Brain and Behavior
Slide 46
{
Brain similarities and differences in humans and animals provide insight to brain-behavior
relationships
|
Animals have less complex anatomy
|
Genetic basis of behavior can be studied in animals with short lifespans (i.e. fruit flies -also
very short generation time)
|
Identify how the brain has evolved
|
Why Study Nonhuman Animals?
{
Species Comparison
Uses cross species comparisons to understand basic brain function for a given behavior
|
Rat: brain very much like human's; cortical function is similar to human's
|
Slugs: used in studying how neurons interconnect to produce behaviour because their NS is
relatively simple
|
Fruit flies: used for studying genetic basis of behaviour because many generations of flies
with NS alterations can be bred quickly
|
Understanding brain mechanisms
{
Genes: functional units that control the transmission and expression of traits from one generation
to the next
{
Researchers produce a human neurological disorder in an animal
|
Cause and treatment for the disease can be examined through manipulation of variables
|
Designing animal models of human neurological disorders
{
Questions Addressed by Studying Nonhuman Animals
Pax-gene responsible for eye development in all seeing animals
|
Homeobox genes-dictate body segmentation in fruit flies and humans
|
Differences in structure of the eye and NS in different animal species due to mutations
|
Understanding brain mechanisms
{
Designing animal models
{
Looks at animals in their environments to see how the environment shapes evolution of the
brain and behavior
|
Makes comparisons between humans and other mammals; look for commonalities
|
Differences in brains and behaviors provide insight into how those differences appeared
|
Describing the phylogenetic (evolutionary) development of the brain
{
Questions Addressed by Studying Nonhuman Animals
Slide 49
{
Hypothetical sequence of animals that represent consecutive stages in evolutionary history
{
Can be used to investigate the neural basis for the origins of behavior
{
Quasi-evolutionary Sequence
Intro to Neuropsych (cont'd): Origins of the Human Brain and
Behaviour
January-05-10
7:15 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
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Description
Introto Neuropsych(contd):Origins of theHuman Brainand Behaviour January-05-10 7:15PM Originsofthe HumanBrain andBehavior(50:00) { Slide44 { Cladogram Graphthat illustratestherelativetimeoforiginofvariouscloselyrelatedgroups Originsofthe HumanBrain andBehavior { PrimateOrder Excellentcolorvision,enhanceddepthperception Hand-eyecoordination Femalesproduceoneinfantperpregnancy { Hominids Humanlikeancestorsthatdivergedfromtheapelineage Changesinhandstructureandbrainstructure SpeciesComparison { Slide46 { WhyStudyNonhumanAnimals? Brainsimilaritiesanddifferencesinhumansandanimalsprovideinsighttobrain-behavior relationships Animalshavelesscomplexanatomy Geneticbasisofbehaviorcanbestudiedinanimalswithshortlifespans(i.e.fruitflies-also veryshortgenerationtime) Identifyhowthebrainhasevolved QuestionsAddressedbyStudyingNonhumanAnimals { Understandingbrainmechanisms Usescrossspeciescomparisonstounderstandbasicbrainfunctionforagivenbehavior Rat:brainverymuch likehumans;corticalfunctionissimilartohumans Slugs:usedinstudyinghowneuronsinterconnecttoproducebehaviour becausetheirNSis relativelysimple Fruitflies:usedforstudyinggeneticbasisofbehaviourbecausemanygenerationsofflies withNSalterationscanbebredquickly { Genes:functionalunitsthatcontrolthetransmissionandexpressionoftraitsfromonegeneration tothenext { Designinganimalmodelsofhumanneurologicaldisorders Researchersproduceahumanneurologicaldisorderinananimal Causeandtreatmentforthediseasecanbeexaminedthroughmanipulationofvariables QuestionsAddressedbyStudyingNonhumanAnimals { Understandingbrainmechanisms Pax-generesponsibleforeyedevelopmentinallseeinganimals Homeoboxgenes-dictatebodysegmentationinfruitfliesandhumans DifferencesinstructureoftheeyeandNSindifferentanimalspeciesduetomutations { Designinganimalmodels { Describingthephylogenetic (evolutionary)developmentofthebrain Looksat animalsintheirenvironmentstoseehowtheenvironmentshapesevolutionofthe brainandbehavior Makescomparisonsbetweenhumansandothermammals;lookforcommonalities Differencesinbrainsandbehaviorsprovideinsightintohowthosedifferencesappeared Quasi-evolutionarySequence { Slide49 { Hypotheticalsequenceofanimalsthatrepresentconsecutivestagesinevolutionaryhistory { Canbeusedto investigatetheneuralbasisfortheoriginsofbehavior www.notesolution.com
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