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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Ayesha Khan

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Epilepsy: disease in which discharges of abnormal electrical activity in the brain interfere with
normal movements, thought and consciousness
{
Insertion of ultrathin wires into the brain to record the electrical activity of a single neuron
{
Single-Cell Recording
{
Specialized neurons that respond to specific objects
{
Grandmother Cells
{
Portrait: Single-Cell Recording
Collect information from other cells
|
|
Dendritic spines
|
Dendrites
{
Extends out from the cell body
|
Axon hillock
|
Axon collateral -branches of the axon
|
Axon
{
End foot at the end of each teleodendrion
|
Sits close to the dendritic spine of another neuron
|
Terminal Button
{
Space between the dendritic spine and the terminal button
Synapse
{
Chemical released from terminal buttons that carries the message across the synapse
Neurotransmitter
{
dZEµ}v[^µµ
Slide 6
{
Proteins: complex organic compounds
{
Nucleus: houses the genes and chromosomes; where cell's proteins are stored and copies
{
Endoplasmic reticulum(ER): where cell's protein products are assembled in accordance with the
gene's instructions
{
Finished products packed in membrane and addressed in Golgi bodies
{
Microfilaments constitute the cell's structural framework
{
Microtubules contract and aid in the cell's movements
{
Mitochondria: cell's energy source
{
Lysosomes: transport incoming supplies and move and store wastes
{
The Cell As a Factory
Fluid outside, cushions the cell
{
Extracellular fluid
|
Fluid inside
{
Intracellular fluid or Cytoplasm
|
Concentration of dissolved substances in the extracellular and intracellular fluid is different
|
Regulates movement of substances and concentration of salts and other chemicals
Attracted to polar water molecules
Head tPhosphorus, polar, hydrophilic
Tail tLipids, no polarity, hydrophobic
Phospholipid Bilayer
Cell Membrane Structure
|
The Cell Membrane: Barrier and Gatekeeper
Impermeable to intracellular and extracellular water
|
Charged particles
{
Cannot freely enter the cell due to the polar surface
{
Ions
|
How the Cell Membrane Functions
The Structure and Electrical Activity of Neurons
January-19-10
5:57 AM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Charged particles
{
Cannot freely enter the cell due to the polar surface
{
Embedded proteins act as gates
{
How do substances cross the membrane?
|
Contain blueprints for proteins
{
Adenine (A)
|
Thymine (T)
|
Guanine (G)
|
Cytosine (C)
|
Consist of DNA, which consists of four nucleotide bases
{
Chromosomes
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Double-helical structure
|
The Nucleus: Blueprints for Proteins
Segment of DNA
{
Functional units that control the transmission and expression of traits from one generation
to the next
{
Gene
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Building blocks of proteins
{
Amino Acid
|
The Nucleus: Blueprints for Proteins
Slide 12
|
Carries genetic code out of the nucleus to the ribosomesin the ER
{
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
|
Protein Synthesis
Translates the genetic code from the mRNA into a specific amino acid chain
{
Ribosomes
|
Chain of amino acids
{
Amino acids link together by a peptide bond, a bond between carbon and nitrogen
{
Folded polypeptide chain = protein
{
Combination of two or more polypeptide chains = protein
{
Polypeptide Chain
|
Shape
{
Ability to change shape in presence of other molecules
{
Ability to combine with other molecules to make more-complex structures
{
What makes a protein functional
|
Protein Synthesis
exocytosis
|
Golgi Bodies and Microtubules: Protein Packaging and Shipment
Create a channel or hole through which a substance can pass
{
Different proteins with different-sized holes allow different substances to enter of leave the
cell
{
Channels
|
Some proteins can change shape, thus creating a gated channel
{
Change shape when another chemical binds to them (protein acts as door lock) or when
electrical charge or temperature change (environmental conditions change)
{
Gates
|
Act as a transporter molecule that requires energy to move substances across the
membrane
{
Pumps
|
What do Membrane Proteins Do?
Neurons in most animals -1 to 20 micrometers in diameter
|
Discovery of the electrical activity of a giant axon (as much as a millimetre in diameter) in a
squid
{
Discovered differences in concentration of ions on the two sides of a cell membrane create
{
Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley
|
dZEµ}v[o]o]À]Ç
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
www.notesolution.com

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Description
TheStructureand Electrical Activityof Neurons January-19-10 5:57AM Portrait:Single-CellRecording { Epilepsy:diseaseinwhichdischargesofabnormalelectricalactivityinthebraininterferewith normalmovements,thoughtandconsciousness { Single-CellRecording { Insertionofultrathinwiresintothebraintorecordtheelectricalactivityofasingleneuron { GrandmotherCells { Specializedneuronsthatrespondtospecificobjects @Z-}L[Z^ { Dendrites Collectinformationfromothercells L Z oo[ZZ Dendriticspines { Axon Extendsoutfromthecellbody Axonhillock Axoncollateral-branchesoftheaxon { TerminalButton Endfootat theendof each teleodendrion Sitsclosetothedendriticspineofanotherneuron { Synapse Spacebetweenthedendriticspineandtheterminalbutton { Neurotransmitter Chemicalreleasedfromterminalbuttonsthatcarriesthemessageacrossthesynapse TheCellAsa Factory { Slide6 { Proteins:complexorganiccompounds { Nucleus:housesthegenesandchromosomes;wherecellsproteinsarestoredandcopies { Endoplasmicreticulum(ER):wherecellsproteinproductsareassembledinaccordancewiththe genesinstructions { FinishedproductspackedinmembraneandaddressedinGolgibodies { Microfilamentsconstitutethecellsstructuralframework { Microtubulescontractandaid inthecellsmovements { Mitochondria:cellsenergysource { Lysosomes:transportincomingsuppliesandmoveandstorewastes TheCellMembrane:BarrierandGatekeeper Extracellularfluid { Fluidoutside,cushionsthecell IntracellularfluidorCytoplasm { Fluidinside Concentrationofdissolvedsubstancesintheextracellularandintracellularfluid is different CellMembraneStructure Regulatesmovementofsubstancesandconcentrationofsaltsandotherchemicals PhospholipidBilayer HeadJPhosphorus,polar,hydrophilic Z Attractedtopolarwatermolecules TailJLipids,nopolarity,hydrophobic Howthe CellMembraneFunctions Impermeabletointracellularandextracellularwater Ions { Chargedparticles { Cannotfreelyenterthecellduetothepolarsurface www.notesolution.com
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