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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Decreased the beating of frog heart immersed in a fluid through electrical stimulation of the
vagus nerve
{
The fluid was transferred to a second frog heart
{
The beating of the second frog heart decreased as well
{
Conclusion: The vagus nerve releases chemical that slows down the heart.
{
K}>}Á][Æ]uv
{
Communication Between Neurons
Slide 49
{
Otto Loewi (1921)
{
Release ACh
{
Cholinergic Neurons
{
Release EP
{
Epinephrine Neurons
{
Release norepinephrine (NE) or noradrenalin (NA)
{
Noradrenergic Neurons
{
Neurotransmitter Discovery
ACh inhibitory in the parasympathetic nervous system
{
NE excitatory in the sympathetic nervous system
{
ACh is inhibitory on organs in the ANS but excitatory on body muscles connected to SNS
{
Neurotransmitters can be excitatory or inhibitory
{
Effects of neurotransmitters determined by receptors and receptor subtypes
{
Neurotransmitter Discovery
Slide 52
Membrane on the axon terminal
{
Presynaptic Membrane
{
Space between the axon terminal and the dendritic spine
{
Synaptic Cleft
{
Membrane on the dendritic spine
{
Postsynaptic Membrane
{
Located inside the axon terminal
{
Contain the neurotransmitter
{
Synaptic Vesicles and Storage Granules
{
The Structure of Synapses
Slide 54
During synthesis
{
During release
{
During receptor action
{
During inactivation
{
Information is transmitted across a synapse in four basic steps:
{
ÇZoo[E(slower-acting class) or building blocks are imported and stored in
the cell (quicker-acting class)
{
As storage granules
|
Attached to the microfilaments in terminal button
|
Attached presynaptic membrane
|
then gathered in synaptic vesicles that are stored:
{
Neurotransmitters (Transmitter synthesis and storage):
{
Steps in Neurotransmission
The action potential opens calcium channels in the presynapticmembrane
{
Neurotransmitter Release
{
Slide 56
Communication Between Neurons
January-21-10
5:57 AM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
The action potential opens calcium channels in the presynapticmembrane
{
Incoming calcium ions bind to calmodulin
{
A molecular complex then triggers the release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft
{
Neurotransmitter Release
{
Neurotransmitter travels across the synapse and interacts with the receptors on the target
cell
{
Depolarize (excitatory action) or hyperpolarize (inhibitory action)the postsynaptic
membrane
|
Initiates another chemical reaction
|
Creates a new synapse
|
Brings about changes in another cell
|
Type of neurotransmitter and kind of receptors determine whether the neurotransmitter
will
{
Receptor on the presynaptic membrane that the neurotransmitter can interact with
|
Receive message from own axon terminal
|
Autoreceptors
{
Amount of Ca2+ that enters the axon terminal in response to the action potential
|
Number of vesicles docked at the cell membrane and waiting to be released
|
Amount of neurotransmitter released from presynaptic membrane in response to single
action potential depends on
{
Synapses correspond to behavioural experience
{
Activation of Receptor Sites
{
Steps in Neurotransmission
Removal of the neurotransmitter from the synapse after it has done its job
{
Diffusion away from the synapse
|
Enzymatic degradation
|
Reuptake into the axon terminal
|
Glial cell up take
|
Occurs through
{
Neurotransmitter Deactivation
{
Steps in Neurotransmission
axon terminal of neuron meets a dendrite or dendritic spine of another neuron
{
Axodendritic
{
Axomuscular
{
Axon terminal ends on a cell body
{
Axosomatic
{
Axon terminal ends on another axon
{
Axoaxonic
{
Axon terminal ends at another terminal
{
Axosynaptic
{
Axon terminal that have no specific target but instead secrete their transmitter chemicals
non-specifically into the extracellular fluid
{
Axoextracellular
{
Axon terminal synapses with a capillary and secretes it transmitter directly into the blood
{
Axosecretory
{
Dendrites may send messages to other dendrites
{
Dendrodendritic
{
Types of Synapses
Type I
{
Typically located on shafts or spines of dendrites
{
Round synaptic vesicles
{
Denser pre-and postsynaptic membranes
{
Synaptic cleft is wider
{
Larger active zone
{
Excitatory Synapses
{
Excitatory and Inhibitory Messages
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
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Description
CommunicationBetween Neurons January-21-10 5:57AM CommunicationBetweenNeurons { K}>}][Z]KL { Decreasedthebeatingoffrogheartimmersedinafluidthroughelectricalstimulationofthe vagusnerve { Thefluidwastransferredtoasecondfrogheart { Thebeatingofthesecondfrogheartdecreasedaswell { Conclusion:Thevagusnervereleaseschemicalthat slowsdowntheheart. Slide49 NeurotransmitterDiscovery { OttoLoewi(1921) { Discoveredtheneurotransmittersacetylcholine(ACh)andepinephrine(EP) { CholinergicNeurons { ReleaseACh { EpinephrineNeurons { ReleaseEP { NoradrenergicNeurons { Releasenorepinephrine(NE)ornoradrenalin(NA) NeurotransmitterDiscovery { Neurotransmitterscanbeexcitatoryorinhibitory { AChinhibitoryintheparasympatheticnervoussystem { NEexcitatoryinthesympatheticnervoussystem { AChisinhibitoryonorgansintheANSbutexcitatoryonbodymusclesconnectedtoSNS { Effectsofneurotransmittersdeterminedbyreceptorsandreceptorsubtypes Slide52 TheStructure of Synapses { PresynapticMembrane { Membraneontheaxonterminal { SynapticCleft { Spacebetweentheaxonterminalandthedendriticspine { PostsynapticMembrane { Membraneonthedendriticspine { SynapticVesiclesandStorageGranules { Locatedinsidetheaxonterminal { Containtheneurotransmitter Slide54 StepsinNeurotransmission { Informationistransmittedacrossasynapseinfourbasicsteps: { Duringsynthesis { Duringrelease { Duringreceptoraction { Duringinactivation { Neurotransmitters(Transmittersynthesisandstorage): { Z oo[Z-(slower-actingclass)orbuildingblocksareimportedandstoredin thecell(quicker-actingclass) { thengatheredinsynapticvesiclesthatarestored: Asstoragegranules Attachedtothemicrofilamentsinterminalbutton Attachedpresynapticmembrane Slide56 { NeurotransmitterRelease { Theactionpotentialopenscalciumchannelsinthepresynapticmembrane www.notesolution.com
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