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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Shows how blood flows in the brain
{
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
{
First to examine changes in blood flow in relationship to mental activity
{
Measured blood flow in the brain and blood pressure (BP) simultaneously
{
Found that during mental activity blood flow increased in the brain, but BP did not change
{
Angelo Mosso
{
Portrait: Angelo Mosso
Detect changes in the electrical activity of the neurons
{
Electrical Recording
{
Induce changes in the electrical activity of the neurons
{
Brain Stimulation
{
Sensitive to the density of different parts of the brain
{
X-Ray Imaging
{
Records and manipulates ongoing changes in brain activity
{
Dynamic Imaging
{
/uP]vPZ]v[]À]Ç
An electrode is inserted into the brain, adjacent to a neuron, the neurons activity is
recorded
{
Most commonly done with animals
{
1) Single cell recording
{
dZdZv]µ(}Z}]vPZ]v[o]o]À]Ç
Many individual neurons can be recorded simultaneously
{
Can record a single action potential or many action potentials
{
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJJGZP9Dtq4
{
Neurons exhibit different firing patterns in different species, in different circumstances and
during different behaviors
{
Time code (stimulus on = firing; stimulus off = no firing)
|
Event code (firing only at onset and offset of stimulus)
|
^/vv]Ç}_A(µvÇ}((]]vP~o]vÀX]vÀX
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Information can be encoded in several ways
{
The neuronal code:
{
Brain uses codes to represent information
{
Neurons have a narrow behavioral repertory, respond to only one type of sensory event or
behavior
{
Nearby neurons have different repertories, suggesting interaction
{
Well-learned behavior = few neurons
{
Newly learned behavior = widespread activity
{
,}ÁZ]^}]vP_Á}lW
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A summation of graded potentials
{
'}o]o}v]o}^]vÁÀ_]vZ]v
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Neurons that produce the rhythmical signal
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Generator
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Sleep studies
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Monitoring the depth of anaesthesia
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EEG used for
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2) Electroencephalographic (EEG) Recording
Imaging the Brain's Activity
January-31-10
12:52 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Monitoring the depth of anaesthesia
{
Diagnosing epilepsy and brain damage
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Studying normal brain function
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One electrode attached to scalp -detect electrical activity in underlying brain area
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Second electrode attached to ear lobe -no electrical activity to detect
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Two electrodes detect the difference in the electrical potentials
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Pacemaker cellsensure these neurons undergo graded potentials at the same times
{
Substantial part of EEG signal comes from neurons of layers V and VI
{
Waves recorded from skull are volume conductedthrough brain and skull
{
Slide 11
Low amplitude, high frequency
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Alert awake state
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Beta Rhythm
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Rhythmic and variable amplitude
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Calm and resting
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Approx 11 cps
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Alpha Waves
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Drowsiness
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4-7 cps
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Theta Waves
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1-3 cps
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Delta Waves
{
EEG patterns are associated with particular behavioral states
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Deep sleep
Slide 12
Brief loss of consciousness
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Petit Mal
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Convulsions of the body, falling down, and loss of consciousness
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Grand Mal
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EEG can be used to diagnosis epilepsy
{
EEG is used to provide information about cause and location of problems
{
Slide 13
Brief change in a slow-wave EEG signal in response to a discrete sensory stimulus
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A component of EEG
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Stimulus is presented repeatedly and the recorded responses are averaged
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Difficult to detect
{
3) Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)
Represent location and time of processing at each generator, yielding a picture on info flow
through the brain
{
Can be used to produce maps of cortical function
{
Different groups of neurons respond successively to the stimulus producing positive (downward)
and negative (upward) waves
{
Error in your text: Fig 6.6 tpay attention to y axis
{
Slide 15
Slide 16
Records ERPs from many different cortical sites
{
Can indicate which area of the brain is responding the most
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Multiple recording
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Normal function of brain pathways
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Cognitive processing during learning about the stimulus
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Hemispheric differences
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Readiness potential
Planning and execution of movement
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ERPs used to study:
{
Slide 17
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
www.notesolution.com

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Description
ImagingtheBrainsActivity January-31-10 12:52PM Portrait:AngeloMosso { PositronEmissionTomography(PET) { Showshowbloodflowsinthebrain { AngeloMosso { Firsttoexaminechangesinbloodflowinrelationshiptomentalactivity { Measuredbloodflowinthebrainandbloodpressure(BP)simultaneously { Foundthatduringmentalactivitybloodflowincreasedinthebrain,butBPdidnotchange Slide3 K2]L2Z ]L[Z ]] { ElectricalRecording { Detectchangesintheelectricalactivityoftheneurons { BrainStimulation { Inducechangesintheelectricalactivityoftheneurons { X-RayImaging { Sensitivetothedensityofdifferentpartsofthebrain { DynamicImaging { Recordsandmanipulatesongoingchangesinbrainactivity @[email protected] ZL]Z}Z }]L2Z ]L[Zo ] o ]] { 1)Singlecellrecording { Anelectrodeisinsertedintothebrain,adjacenttoaneuron,theneuronsactivityis recorded { Mostcommonlydonewithanimals Slide6 { Manyindividualneuronscanberecordedsimultaneously { Canrecorda singleactionpotentialormanyactionpotentials { http:www.youtube.comwatch?v=mJJGZP9Dtq4 Slide7 { Theneuronalcode: { Neuronsexhibitdifferentfiringpatternsindifferentspecies,indifferentcircumstancesand duringdifferentbehaviors { Informationcanbeencodedinseveralways Timecode(stimuluson=firing;stimulusoff=nofiring) Eventcode(firingonlyatonsetandoffsetofstimulus) ^LLZ] }_)L }]]L2~Zo]LZ:]L ZZ: Z Slide8 { Brainusescodestorepresentinformation Slide9 { ,}Z]Z^ }]L2_}lZ9 { Neuronshaveanarrowbehavioralrepertory,respondtoonlyonetypeofsensoryeventor behavior { Nearbyneuronshavedifferentrepertories,suggestinginteraction { Well-learnedbehavior=fewneurons { Newlylearnedbehavior=widespreadactivity 2)Electroencephalographic(EEG)Recording { }Zo ] o}L]oZ}^]LZ_]LZ]L { Asummationofgradedpotentials { Generator { Neuronsthatproducetherhythmicalsignal { EEGusedfor { Sleepstudies { Monitoringthedepthofanaesthesia www.notesolution.com
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