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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Experienced movement problems
{
MPTP acts as a selective neurotoxin, killing cells of substantia nigra thereby reducing
amount of dopamine in brain
|
]Pv}Á]ZWl]v}v[]
{
7 adults hospitalized after an encounter with heroin containing MPTP (contaminant)
{
Received fetal dopamine transplants
{
His brain showed increased dopamine function & he had a decrease in motor symptoms
{
{
Portrait: The Case of the Frozen Addict
Slide 3
Study of how drugs affect the nervous system and behavior
{
Drug: chemical compound administered to bring about some desired change in the body
{
Psychopharmacology
{
A substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior
{
Used to manage neuropsychological illness
{
Also, substances of abuse
{
Many promote craving and can produce addiction
{
Psychoactive Drugs
{
The Influence of Drugs and Hormones on Behavior
Slide 5
{
Route of administration: way in which a drug enters and passes through body to reach target
{
Generally fewer barriers if drug is inhaled or injected; fewest obstacles -injected directly into
brain
{
Routes of Drug Administration
Drugs are metabolized in the kidneys, liver, and bile
{
Drugs are excreted in the urine, feces, sweat, breast milk, and exhaled air
{
Routes of Drug Removal
Brain capillaries composed of endothelial cells that have tight junctions
{
Endothelial cells are surrounded by the end feet of astrocytes, help exchange food and
waste and maintain tight junctions and make capillaries dilate to increase blood flow to
areas on the brain in which neurons are very active
{
Small molecules and fat soluble molecules can pass through
{
Active transport systems, pumps, carry in nutrients
{
Blood-brain barrier
{
Revisiting the Blood-Brain Barrier
Small molecules, such as oxygen and CO2, which are not ionized and so a fat soluble, can pass
through the capillary wall
{
Molecules of glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients can be carried across the capillary by
active-transport systems, which are pumps, that are specialised for the transport of a particular
substance
{
Slide 8
Several areas of the brain lack the tight junctions
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Pituitary gland
{
Area postrema
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Pineal gland
{
Slide 9
Small, weakly acidic, water or fat soluble, potent in small amounts, and not easily degraded
{
If taken orally, the most effective drugs consist of molecules that are:
{
Can reduce the dose of the drug
{
Inhalation or Injection
{
Drug Routes and Dosages
The Influence of Drugs and Hormones on Behaviour
Sunday, February 28, 2010
7:13 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Can reduce the dose of the drug
{
Inhalation or Injection
{
For each obstacle in the body that is eliminated, the drug dose can be reduced by a factor of 10
{
Drugs can influence any component of neurotransmission
{
Most psychoactive drugs work by influencing the chemical reactions at synapses
{
Agonists increase the effectiveness of neurotransmission
{
Antagonists decrease their effectiveness
{
Agonists vs Antagonists
{
Drug Actions in Synapses
Slide 12
{
Promotes release of ACh
|
Black widow spider venom
{
Blocks release of ACh
|
Botulinum toxin
{
Influence the release of ACh from the axon terminal
{
Agonist to stimulate cholinergic receptors
|
Cholinergic receptor as neuromuscular junction is a nicontinic receptor
|
Structure similar to ACh
|
Nicotine
{
Antagonist at cholinergic receptors, blocking them and preventing ACh from acting
|
Cannot cross BBB -no psychoactive effects
|
Curare
{
Act on ACh receptors
{
Inhibits acetylcholinesterase (breaks down ACh)
{
Agonist to increase amount of ACh available in synapse
{
Small doses used to treat myasthenia gravis("muscular weakness") -muscle receptors less
than normally responsive to ACh
{
Physostigmine
{
Bind irreversibly to AChE and so are extremely toxic
{
Organophosphates
{
Drug Action at an Acetylcholine Synapse
Seven classes of drugs based on their effects
{
Drugs divided into seven classes according to most pronounced psychoactive effect of a drug
{
Further divided into subcategories
{
Class I: Sedative-hypnotics and Antianxiety Agents
{
Classification of Psychoactive Drugs
Common beverage
{
Harms brain development in fetuses and produces fetal alcohol syndrome
{
Alcohol
{
Sleeping medication
{
Anesthesia before surgery
{
Barbiturates
{
Example: Valium
|
Minor tranquilizers or antianxiety agents
{
Benzodiazepines
{
Class I: Sedative-hypnotics and Antianxiety Agents
"sedative" -to calm or moderate nervousness or excitement
{
"hypotic" -sleep inducing
{
Slide 13
{
Effects depend on dose
{
Can produce fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
|
Alcohol
{
Induce anesthesia
Barbiturates
{
Most common
{
Class I: Sedative-hypnotics and Antianxiety Agents
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
www.notesolution.com
Induce anesthesia
|
Barbiturates
{
Aka minor tranquilizersor antianxiety agents
|
Used to treat stress
|
Eg. Valium
|
Benzodiazepines
{
Controls a chloride channel, and excitation of the receptor produces influx of Cl-ions
(hyperpolarizes membrane, less likely to propagate action potential
{
Slide 15
{
GABA decreases neuron's rate of firing
{
The sedative-hypnoticsite increases influx of Cl-ions and so produce same effect
{
GABA concentrations are never excessive
|
Antianxiety site accepts benzodiazepines and enhances binding of GABA
{
Combined dosage of antianxiety and s-h drugs can produce coma or death
{
All work by influencing the GABAA receptor
{
Sedative-hypnotics
{
Date rape drugs
|
Produce altered states of consciousness and hallucinations
|
Soluble in alcohol, act quickly, and impair memory for recent events
|
GHB, flunitrazepam (roofies), and ketamine (Special K)
{
Dissociative Anesthetics
{
Class I: Sedative-hypnotics and Antianxiety Agents
Various neuropsychological conditions that are characterized by hallucinations (false
sensory perceptions) or delusions(false beliefs)
{
Psychosis
{
Common effect: immediate reduction of motor activity
{
Prolonged use can lead to symptoms reminiscent of Parkinson's and dyskinesia
{
Drugs that treat psychosis are known as antipsychotics, major tranquilizers, and neuroleptics
{
Class II: Antipsychotic Agents
Slide 18
Immediate reduction of motor activity
{
W}o}vPµ}µWl]v}v[Çu}u
{
Block the D2dopamine receptor
{
Schizophrenia results from excessive dopamine activity
{
Dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia
{
Class II: Antipsychotic Agents
Fosters release of dopamine
{
Blocks its reuptake
{
If amphetamine causes schizophrenia-like symptoms by increasing dopamine activity,
perhaps naturally occurring schizophrenia is related to excessive dopamine action, too
{
Amphetamine -dopamine agonist
{
Slide 20
Mood disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of worthlessness and guilt, disruption of
eating and sleeping, slowing of behavior, and thoughts of suicide
{
Major Depression
{
Enzyme
Breaks down serotonin within axon terminal
Inhibition provides more serotonin for release
MAO
|
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MOA inhibitors)
{
Tricyclic Antidepressants
{
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
|
Second Generation Antidepressants (sometimes atypical antidepressants)
{
Three types of drugs with antidepressant effects
{
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
{
Class III: Antidepressants
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 3
www.notesolution.com

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Description
TheInfluenceof Drugsand Hormones on Behaviour Sunday,February28, 2010 7:13PM Portrait:The Case of theFrozenAddict { 7adultshospitalizedafteranencounterwithheroincontainingMPTP(contaminant) { Experiencedmovementproblems { ]2L}Z]Z9l]LZ}L[Z]ZZ | MPTPacts as a selectiveneurotoxin,killingcellsofsubstantianigratherebyreducing amountofdopamineinbrain { GeorgeCarillo { Receivedfetaldopaminetransplants { Hisbrainshowedincreaseddopaminefunction&hehadadecreaseinmotorsymptoms Slide3 TheInfluenceofDrugs andHormones onBehavior { Psychopharmacology { Studyofhowdrugsaffectthenervoussystemandbehavior { Drug:chemicalcompoundadministeredtobringaboutsomedesiredchangeinthebody { PsychoactiveDrugs { Asubstancethatacts to altermood,thought,orbehavior { Usedtomanageneuropsychologicalillness { Also,substancesofabuse { Manypromotecravingand can produceaddiction RoutesofDrug Administration { Slide5 { Routeofadministration:wayinwhichadrugentersandpassesthroughbodyto reach target { Generallyfewerbarriersifdrugisinhaledorinjected;fewestobstacles-injecteddirectlyinto brain RoutesofDrug Removal { Drugsare metabolizedinthekidneys,liver,andbile { Drugsare excretedintheurine,feces,sweat,breastmilk,andexhaledair RevisitingtheBlood-BrainBarrier { Blood-brainbarrier { Braincapillariescomposedofendothelialcellsthathavetightjunctions { Endothelialcellsaresurroundedbytheendfeetofastrocytes,helpexchangefoodand wasteandmaintaintightjunctionsandmakecapillariesdilatetoincreasebloodflowto areasonthebrain inwhichneuronsareveryactive { Smallmoleculesandfatsolublemoleculescanpassthrough { Activetransportsystems,pumps,carryinnutrients Slide8 { Smallmolecules,suchasoxygenandCO2,whicharenot ionizedandsoafatsoluble,canpass throughthecapillarywall { Moleculesofglucose,aminoacids,andothernutrientscanbecarriedacrossthecapillaryby active-transportsystems,whicharepumps,thatarespecialisedforthetransportofaparticular substance Slide9 { Severalareasofthebrainlackthetightjunctions { Pituitarygland { Areapostrema { Pinealgland DrugRoutesandDosages { Iftakenorally,themosteffectivedrugsconsistofmoleculesthatare: { Small,weaklyacidic,waterorfatsoluble,potentinsmallamounts,andnoteasilydegraded { InhalationorInjection { Canreducethedoseofthedrug www.notesolution.com { InhalationorInjection { Canreducethedoseofthedrug { Foreachobstaclein thebodythatis eliminated,thedrugdosecan bereducedbya factorof10 DrugActionsinSynapses { Drugscan influenceanycomponentofneurotransmission { Mostpsychoactivedrugsworkbyinfluencingthechemicalreactionsatsynapses { AgonistsvsAntagonists { Agonistsincreasetheeffectivenessofneurotransmission { Antagonistsdecreasetheireffectiveness DrugActionat anAcetylcholineSynapse { Slide12 { InfluencethereleaseofAChfromtheaxonterminal { Blackwidowspidervenom | PromotesreleaseofACh { Botulinumtoxin | BlocksreleaseofACh { Acton AChreceptors { Nicotine | Agonisttostimulatecholinergicreceptors | Cholinergicreceptorasneuromuscularjunctionisanicontinicreceptor | StructuresimilartoACh { Curare | Antagonistatcholinergicreceptors,blockingthemandpreventingAChfromacting | CannotcrossBBB-nopsychoactiveeffects { Physostigmine { Inhibitsacetylcholinesterase(breaksdownACh) { AgonisttoincreaseamountofAChavailableinsynapse { Smalldosesusedtotreatmyastheniagravis("muscularweakness")-musclereceptorsless thannormallyresponsivetoACh { Organophosphates { BindirreversiblytoAChEandsoare extremelytoxic ClassificationofPsychoactiveDrugs { Sevenclassesofdrugsbasedontheireffects { Drugsdividedintosevenclassesaccordingtomostpronouncedpsychoactiveeffectofadrug { Furtherdividedintosubcategories { ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents { Alcohol { Commonbeverage { Harmsbraindevelopmentinfetusesandproducesfetalalcoholsyndrome { Barbiturates { Sleepingmedication { Anesthesiabeforesurgery { Benzodiazepines { Minortranquilizersorantianxietyagents | Example:Valium ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents { "sedative"-tocalmormoderatenervousnessorexcitement { "hypotic"-sleepinducing { Effectsdependondose { Slide13 { Mostcommon { Alcohol | Canproducefetalalcoholsyndrome(FAS) { Barbiturates Induceanesthesia www.notesolution.com{ Barbiturates | Induceanesthesia { Benzodiazepines | Akaminortranquilizersorantianxietyagents | Usedtotreat stress | Eg.Valium { AllworkbyinfluencingtheGABA reAeptor { Controlsachloridechannel,andexcitationofthereceptorproducesinfluxofCl-ions (hyperpolarizesmembrane,lesslikelytopropagateactionpotential { Slide15 { GABAdecreasesneuron'srateoffiring { Thesedative-hypnoticsiteincreasesinfluxofCl-ionsandsoproducesameeffect { AntianxietysiteacceptsbenzodiazepinesandenhancesbindingofGABA | GABAconcentrationsareneverexcessive { Combineddosageofantianxietyands-hdrugscanproducecomaordeath ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents { DissociativeAnesthetics { Sedative-hypnotics { GHB,flunitrazepam(roofies),andketamine(SpecialK) | Daterapedrugs | Producealteredstatesofconsciousnessandhallucinations | Solubleinalcohol,actquickly,andimpairmemoryforrecentevents ClassII:AntipsychoticAgents { Psychosis { Variousneuropsychologicalconditionsthatarecharacterizedbyhallucinations(false sensoryperceptions)ordelusions(falsebeliefs) { Drugsthat treatpsychosisareknownas antipsychotics,majortranquilizers,andneuroleptics { Commoneffect:immediatere
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