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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Severed spinal cord at the C1-C2 level
{
Paralyzed below the neck
{
Able to wiggle toes, move fingers of his left hand, raise right hand, and distinguish
between hot and cold and dull and sharp all over his body
|
Remarkable recovery after intensive rehabilitation
{
Christopher Reeve
{
Portrait: Spinal Cord Injury
{
Functions of the Motor System During a Hand Movement
Specify movement goals and send information to the prefrontal cortex
|
Direct: prompt M1 for automatic movements
|
Indirect: through temporal cortex -movements requiring conscious control
|
Posterior Cortex
{
Generates plans for movement
|
Prefrontal Cortex
{
Contains repertoire of movements -a lexicon -allowing it to recognizes movement of
others and selects similar or different actions
|
Contains supplementary motor cortex
|
Premotor Cortex
{
Executes movements
|
Primary Motor Cortex
{
Four regions in the neocortex for skilled movement:
{
The Neocortex and the Initiation of Movement
Slide 6
{
Relative increases in blood flow occur only in the regions contributing to the particular
movements
{
Cerebral Blood Flow During Movement
Slide 8
Precentral gyrus is known as the primary motor cortex or M1
|
Stimulation of dorsal part of premotor cortex can produce movement -
"supplementary motor cortex"
|
Produced movement in different areas of the body by stimulating the precentral gyrus
{
Larger areas = increased motor control
Large parts of the motor cortex regulate hand, finger, lip and tongue
movements
Disproportion in relative sizes of the body parts
|
Discovered the motor homunculus ("little person") (more than one)
{
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52bYneF6JEk
{
Wilder Penfield (from last class: somatosensory humunculus)
{
Identifying the Motor Cortex with the Use of Electrical Stimulation
Motor cortex specialized for control of movements, rather than control of individual muscles
{
Different homunculi, different classes of movement
{
Defensive postures of the face
|
Movement of the hand to the mouth
|
Manipulation and shaping of the hand
|
Outward reach with the hand
|
Climbing and leaping
|
Michael Graziano: Ethological Categories
{
Movement Sequences
Slide 11
Organisation of the Motor System
Tuesday, February 23, 2010
10:02 AM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Part of body to be moved
|
Spatial location to which the movement is directed
|
Function
|
Motor cortex = three types of organization
{
Control of movement & working space
{
Slide 11
Used to reach for small objects
|
The pincer grasp
{
1) Babies begin to spontaneously make the movement (http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=FXaQjdGIsTU)
{
2) Most primate species use the pincer grasp
{
3) When lesions occur to the thumb region of the cortex, weakness appears in all fingers and
arm -action of reaching for object and grasping is impaired
{
Evidence for a human movement lexicon (repertoire of movement categories in motor cortex)
{
The Movement Lexicon
Movement lexicon for the premotor cortex is more complex relative to the motor cortex
{
Slide 13
Recorded activity of neurons in the wrist region of the motor cortex while monkeys flexed
their wrist
{
Neurons plan and initiate movement
|
Neurons increase firing to increase the force of a movement
|
Motor cortex specifies the direction of the movement
|
Findings:
{
Edward Evarts
{
Movement Coding by Neurons in the Neocortex
Slide 15
Each neuron is maximally active to a particular direction
Activity is decreased in proportion to the displacement from the preferred
direction
Conclusion: Motor cortex neurons calculate distance and direction of movement
Findings:
|
Recorded activity of neurons in the motor cortex while a monkey moved a lever in different
directions
{
Apostolos Georgopoulos
{
Movement Coding by Neurons in the Neocortex
Slide 17
Pianists exhibit activation in the motor cortex when listening to music
|
Haueisen and Knosche (2001)
{
Snapshot: What role does the motor cortex play in observing, remembering, and imagining
movement?
{
Slide 18
Similar brain activation during imagined movement and actual movement
|
Nyberg and colleagues (2001)
{
Slide 19
Do not respond to objects or to isolated hand movements, nor very well to pictures of video
of movements
|
Neurons that fire when we see others make a movement
{
Encode a complete action
{
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{
v^(]oo]vZovl_ÁZv}(u}Àuv]v
{
Enable communication between sender and receiver
{
Mirror Neurons
{
Mirroring Movement
Mirror neurons in humans
{
Slide 21
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Organisationof theMotorSystem Tuesday,February 23,2010 10:02AM Portrait:SpinalCordInjury { ChristopherReeve { SeveredspinalcordattheC1-C2level { Paralyzedbelowtheneck { Remarkablerecoveryafterintensiverehabilitation Abletowiggletoes,movefingersofhislefthand,raiserighthand,anddistinguish betweenhotandcoldanddullandsharpalloverhis body FunctionsoftheMotorSystemDuringaHand Movement { Slide4 TheNeocortexandtheInitiationofMovement { Fourregionsintheneocortexforskilledmovement: { PosteriorCortex Specifymovementgoalsandsendinformationtotheprefrontalcortex Direct:promptM1 forautomaticmovements Indirect:throughtemporalcortex-movementsrequiringconsciouscontrol { PrefrontalCortex Generatesplansformovement { PremotorCortex Containsrepertoireofmovements-alexicon-allowingittorecognizesmovementof othersandselectssimilarordifferentactions Containssupplementarymotorcortex { PrimaryMotorCortex Executesmovements Slide6 CerebralBloodFlowDuringMovement { Slide7 { Relativeincreasesinbloodflowoccuronlyintheregionscontributingtotheparticular movements Slide8 IdentifyingtheMotorCortexwiththeUseofElectricalStimulation { WilderPenfield(fromlastclass:somatosensoryhumunculus) { Producedmovementindifferentareasofthebodybystimulatingtheprecentralgyrus PrecentralgyrusisknownastheprimarymotorcortexorM1 Stimulationofdorsalpartofpremotorcortexcanproducemovement- supplementarymotorcortex { Discoveredthemotorhomunculus(littleperson)(morethanone) Disproportioninrelativesizesofthebodyparts Z Largerareas= increasedmotorcontrol Z Largeparts ofthemotorcortexregulatehand,finger,lipandtongue movements { http:www.youtube.comwatch?v=52bYneF6JEk MovementSequences { Motorcortexspecializedforcontrolofmovements,ratherthancontrolofindividualmuscles { Differenthomunculi,differentclassesofmovement { MichaelGraziano:EthologicalCategories Defensiveposturesoftheface Movementofthehandtothemouth Manipulationandshapingofthehand Outwardreachwiththehand Climbingandleaping Slide11 www.notesolution.com
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