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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Lost all fine touch and pressure fibers for the sensory nerves
{
Diagnosed as having neuropathy-disorder of the peripheral nerves
{
Could still feel temperature and pain
{
Proprioception: perception of the position and movement of the body, limbs, and head
{
Had to learn to replace body awareness with vision
{
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKxyJfE831Q
{
Ian Waterman
{
Specialized cells that transduce, or convert, sensory energy into neural activity
{
are energy filters tthey respond only to a narrow band of energy within each modality's
energy spectrum
{
Sensory receptors
{
General Principles of Sensory System Function
People who lack receptors for parts of the usual visual spectrum are color deficientor color-blind
{
Slide 4
Vision: Light to chemical energy to action potentials
|
Audition: Air pressure waves to mechanical energy to action potentials
|
Somatosensory: Mechanical energy to action potentials
|
Taste and Olfaction: Chemical molecules to action potentials
|
Pain: Tissue damage to chemical signal to action potentials
|
each sensory system is specialized to a different form of energy
{
Transduction of energy:
{
Slide 5
Slide 6
Specific part of the world to which a sensory receptor responds
{
W}À]^µv]µ_À]Á}(ZÁ}o(}Zv}ÇÇu
{
Helps locate sensory events in space
{
Receptive field
{
Receptive Fields Locate Sensory Events
Detect whether something is there
{
Easily activated but stop responding quickly
{
Rapidly Adapting Receptors
{
Adapt more slowly to stimulation
{
Slowly Adapting Receptors
{
Receptors Identify Change and Constancy
Receptors that respond to external stimuli
{
Exteroceptive
{
Receptors that respond to internal stimuli
{
Help interpret meaning of external stimuli
{
Interoceptive
{
Visual stimuli appears to stream
{
Optic flow
{
Changes in intensity of a sound because of our changing location
{
Auditory flow
{
Receptors Distinguish Self from Other
Higher density of sensory receptors leads to increased sensitivity
{
Ability to recognize the presence of two stimuli close together
{
Two-point sensitivity (discrimination)
{
Fovea: increased density of cone cells, increases ability to make sensitive color
{
E.g., visual system
{
Receptor Density Determines Sensitivity
Organisation of the Sensory Systems
Sunday, February 28, 2010
7:46 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Fovea: increased density of cone cells, increases ability to make sensitive color
discrimination in bright light
{
Peripheral retina: increased density of rod cells, increased sensitivity for light
{
Receptors connect to the cortex through a sequence of three or four intervening neurons
{
Allow sensory systems to interact
{
Pain receptors in the spinal cord trigger reflexes that produce withdrawal movements.
|
Pain pathways in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) trigger behavioral activation
and emotional responses
|
Examples:
{
Relays allow sensory systems to produce relevant actions
{
Neural Relays
Inhibition of sensory information
|
Can be produced by descending signals from the cortex through PAG and on to lower
sensory relays
|
Gating
{
Message Modification Takes Place at Relays
{
Eg. Viewed liip movements modify auditory perception of listener ("ba" plays,
sees lips make "da", hears "da"
McGurke Effect (visual modification of sound)
|
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtsfidRq2tw
|
Sensory information gets modified by competing signals from other senses
{
Relays allow sensory interactions
{
Neural Relays
After transduction, sensory information is encoded by action potentials
{
Presence of a stimulus encoded by increase or decrease in the discharge rate of the neuron
{
The amount of increase can encode stimulus intensity
{
Qualitative changes encoded by activity in different neurons
{
Central Organization of Sensory Systems
Sensations produced in distinct cortical regions
{
Learn through experience
{
Each sensory system has distinct wiring
{
How do we perceive touch as different from sound?
{
Mixing of the senses
{
Eg. People hear in colour, or identify smells by how the smells sound to them
{
Synesthesia
{
Central Organization of Sensory Systems
Subsystems perform distinct and specific roles
{
Slide 15 (STUDY)
{
Each Sensory System is Composed of Subsystems
Neural-spatial representation of the body or areas of the sensory world
{
Topographic Organization
{
Sensory systems have one primary cortical area
{
Secondary areas may perform specific aspects of the sensory modality
{
Recall that additional areas are secondary areas (most info that reached them is relayed through
primary area)
{
Sensory Systems Have Multiple Representations
Slide 17
Sensitive to dim light, night vision
Located in the peripheral retina
Rods
|
Sensitive to bright light, day vision and color vision
Densely packed in the fovea
Cones
|
Photoreceptors
{
Vision
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Organisationof theSensorySystems Sunday,February28, 2010 7:46PM Portrait:Effects ofa SensoryLoss on Movement { IanWaterman { Lostallfinetouchandpressurefibersforthesensorynerves { Diagnosedashavingneuropathy-disorderoftheperipheralnerves { Couldstillfeeltemperatureandpain { Proprioception:perceptionofthepositionandmovementofthebody,limbs,andhead { Hadto learnto replacebodyawarenesswithvision { http:www.youtube.comwatch?v=FKxyJfE831Q GeneralPrinciplesofSensorySystemFunction { Sensoryreceptors { Specializedcellsthattransduce,orconvert,sensoryenergyintoneuralactivity { areenergyfiltersJtheyrespondonlytoanarrow bandof energywithineachmodalitys energyspectrum Slide4 { Peoplewholackreceptorsforpartsoftheusualvisualspectrumare colordeficient orcolor-blind Slide5 { Transductionofenergy: { eachsensorysystemisspecializedtoadifferentformofenergy Vision:Lighttochemicalenergytoactionpotentials Audition:Airpressurewavestomechanicalenergytoactionpotentials Somatosensory:Mechanicalenergytoactionpotentials TasteandOlfaction:Chemicalmoleculestoactionpotentials Pain:Tissuedamagetochemicalsignaltoactionpotentials Slide6 ReceptiveFieldsLocateSensoryEvents { Receptivefield { Specificpartoftheworldtowhichasensoryreceptorresponds { 9}]Z^L]_]}Z}o} ZZLZ}ZZK { Helpslocatesensoryeventsinspace ReceptorsIdentifyChangeandConstancy { RapidlyAdaptingReceptors { Detectwhethersomethingisthere { Easilyactivatedbutstoprespondingquickly { SlowlyAdaptingReceptors { Adaptmoreslowlytostimulation ReceptorsDistinguishSelffromOther { Exteroceptive { Receptorsthatrespondtoexternalstimuli { Interoceptive { Receptorsthatrespondtointernalstimuli { Helpinterpretmeaningofexternalstimuli { Opticflow { Visualstimuliappearstostream { Auditoryflow { Changesinintensityofasoundbecauseofourchanginglocation ReceptorDensityDeterminesSensitivity { Higherdensityofsensoryreceptorsleadstoincreasedsensitivity { Two-pointsensitivity(discrimination) { Abilitytorecognizethepresenceoftwostimuliclosetogether { E.g.,visualsystem { Fovea:increaseddensityofconecells,increasesabilitytomakesensitivecolor www.notesolution.com
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