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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Damage to the posterior part of the left temporal lobe
|
Difficulties in reading, speaking and remembering words
|
A.B.
{
Similar injury
|
Trouble recognizing faces, and drawing pictures
|
L.P.
{
A.B. vs. L.P.
What could account for the differences?
Portrait: Individual Responses to Injury
Handedness and Functional Asymmetry
Left-handers show more variation in asymmetry
{
Hand preference correlates with differential asymmetry patterns
More fibers descend to the right hand
Little evidence of differences in anatomy in right and left-handers
{
MRI
Greater hemispheric interaction in left-handers
Anatomical Studies
Majority of left-handers have left lateralized speech (70%)
Larger incidence of left-handedness among children with neurological disorders (dominant
hemisphere)
Little known about cerebral organization of those with right hemisphere speech
Functional Cerebral Organization in Left-Handers
Proposes left hand is better for holding a shield or holding a baby
{
Cause and effect
{
Behavioral utility
Bias in the environment
{
But left-handers are only ~10%
{
Environmental Reinforcement
Genetic bias towards right-handedness
{
Left-handedness develops through a cerebral deficit
{
Environmental Accident
Theories of Hand Preference: Environmental Theories
Right-handedness due to enhanced maturation and greater development of the left hemisphere
Most species have a left-sided developmental advantage/bias that is not genetically encoded
Theories of Hand Preference: Anatomical Theories
Higher testosterone = increased likelihood of left-handedness
{
Different levels of testosterone influence cerebral asymmetry (Geschwind-Galaburda theory)
Theories of Hand Preference: Hormonal Theories
Dominant gene rs+ for speech in the left hemisphere, which gives motor advantage to right
hand
{
Recessive gene rs-that results in no systematic bias for speech or handedness
{
Model predicts about 12.5% left-handers
{
Annett
Theories of Hand Preference: Genetic Theories
Men superior at throwing and intercepting objects
|
Women superior at fine motor tasks
Motor Skills
{
Sex Differences in Behavior
Sex Differences in Cerebral Organization
Variations in Cerebral Asymmetry
Monday, March 08, 2010
3:09 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
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Description
Variationsin Cerebral Asymmetry Monday,March08, 2010 3:09PM Portrait:IndividualResponsestoInjury { A.B.vs.L.P. { A.B. Damagetotheposteriorpartof thelefttemporallobe Difficultiesinreading,speakingandrememberingwords { L.P. Similarinjury Troublerecognizingfaces,anddrawingpictures { Whatcouldaccount forthe differences? HandednessandFunctionalAsymmetry AnatomicalStudies { Handpreferencecorrelateswithdifferentialasymmetrypatterns { Left-handersshowmorevariationinasymmetry { Morefibersdescendtotherighthand { MRI { Littleevidenceofdifferencesinanatomyinrightandleft-handers { Greaterhemisphericinteractioninleft-handers FunctionalCerebralOrganizationinLeft-Handers { Majorityofleft-handershaveleftlateralizedspeech(70%) { Largerincidenceofleft-handednessamongchildrenwithneurologicaldisorders(dominant hemisphere) { Littleknownaboutcerebralorganizationofthosewithrighthemispherespeech TheoriesofHandPreference:EnvironmentalTheories { Behavioralutility { Proposeslefthandisbetterforholdingashieldorholdingababy { Causeandeffect { EnvironmentalReinforcement { Biasintheenvironment { Butleft-handersareonly~10% { EnvironmentalAccident { Geneticbiastowardsright-handedness { Left-handednessdevelopsthroughacerebraldeficit TheoriesofHandPreference:AnatomicalTheories { Right-handednessduetoenhancedmaturationandgreaterdevelopmentofthelefthemisphere { Mostspecieshavealeft-sideddevelopmentaladvantagebiasthatisnotgeneticallyencoded TheoriesofHandPreference:HormonalTheories { Differentlevelsoftestosteroneinfluencecerebralasymmetry(Geschwind-Galaburdatheory) { Highertestosterone=increasedlikelihoodofleft-handedness TheoriesofHandPreference:GeneticTheories { Annett { Dominantgeners+forspeechinthelefthemisphere,whichgivesmotoradvantagetoright hand { Recessivegeners-thatresultsinnosystematicbiasforspeechorhandedness { Modelpredictsabout12.5%left-handers SexDifferencesinCerebralOrganization { SexDifferencesinBehavior { MotorSkills Mensuperioratthrowingandinterceptingobjects Womensuperioratfinemotortasks www.notesolution.com
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