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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

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Melissa Holmes

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Damage to the posterior part of the left temporal lobe
Difficulties in reading, speaking and remembering words
Similar injury
Trouble recognizing faces, and drawing pictures
A.B. vs. L.P.
What could account for the differences?
Portrait: Individual Responses to Injury
Handedness and Functional Asymmetry
Left-handers show more variation in asymmetry
Hand preference correlates with differential asymmetry patterns
More fibers descend to the right hand
Little evidence of differences in anatomy in right and left-handers
Greater hemispheric interaction in left-handers
Anatomical Studies
Majority of left-handers have left lateralized speech (70%)
Larger incidence of left-handedness among children with neurological disorders (dominant
Little known about cerebral organization of those with right hemisphere speech
Functional Cerebral Organization in Left-Handers
Proposes left hand is better for holding a shield or holding a baby
Cause and effect
Behavioral utility
Bias in the environment
But left-handers are only ~10%
Environmental Reinforcement
Genetic bias towards right-handedness
Left-handedness develops through a cerebral deficit
Environmental Accident
Theories of Hand Preference: Environmental Theories
Right-handedness due to enhanced maturation and greater development of the left hemisphere
Most species have a left-sided developmental advantage/bias that is not genetically encoded
Theories of Hand Preference: Anatomical Theories
Higher testosterone = increased likelihood of left-handedness
Different levels of testosterone influence cerebral asymmetry (Geschwind-Galaburda theory)
Theories of Hand Preference: Hormonal Theories
Dominant gene rs+ for speech in the left hemisphere, which gives motor advantage to right
Recessive gene rs-that results in no systematic bias for speech or handedness
Model predicts about 12.5% left-handers
Theories of Hand Preference: Genetic Theories
Men superior at throwing and intercepting objects
Women superior at fine motor tasks
Motor Skills
Sex Differences in Behavior
Sex Differences in Cerebral Organization
Variations in Cerebral Asymmetry
Monday, March 08, 2010
3:09 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1

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Variationsin Cerebral Asymmetry Monday,March08, 2010 3:09PM Portrait:IndividualResponsestoInjury { A.B.vs.L.P. { A.B. Damagetotheposteriorpartof thelefttemporallobe Difficultiesinreading,speakingandrememberingwords { L.P. Similarinjury Troublerecognizingfaces,anddrawingpictures { Whatcouldaccount forthe differences? HandednessandFunctionalAsymmetry AnatomicalStudies { Handpreferencecorrelateswithdifferentialasymmetrypatterns { Left-handersshowmorevariationinasymmetry { Morefibersdescendtotherighthand { MRI { Littleevidenceofdifferencesinanatomyinrightandleft-handers { Greaterhemisphericinteractioninleft-handers FunctionalCerebralOrganizationinLeft-Handers { Majorityofleft-handershaveleftlateralizedspeech(70%) { Largerincidenceofleft-handednessamongchildrenwithneurologicaldisorders(dominant hemisphere) { Littleknownaboutcerebralorganizationofthosewithrighthemispherespeech TheoriesofHandPreference:EnvironmentalTheories { Behavioralutility { Proposeslefthandisbetterforholdingashieldorholdingababy { Causeandeffect { EnvironmentalReinforcement { Biasintheenvironment { Butleft-handersareonly~10% { EnvironmentalAccident { Geneticbiastowardsright-handedness { Left-handednessdevelopsthroughacerebraldeficit TheoriesofHandPreference:AnatomicalTheories { Right-handednessduetoenhancedmaturationandgreaterdevelopmentofthelefthemisphere { Mostspecieshavealeft-sideddevelopmentaladvantagebiasthatisnotgeneticallyencoded TheoriesofHandPreference:HormonalTheories { Differentlevelsoftestosteroneinfluencecerebralasymmetry(Geschwind-Galaburdatheory) { Highertestosterone=increasedlikelihoodofleft-handedness TheoriesofHandPreference:GeneticTheories { Annett { Dominantgeners+forspeechinthelefthemisphere,whichgivesmotoradvantagetoright hand { Recessivegeners-thatresultsinnosystematicbiasforspeechorhandedness { Modelpredictsabout12.5%left-handers SexDifferencesinCerebralOrganization { SexDifferencesinBehavior { MotorSkills Mensuperioratthrowingandinterceptingobjects Womensuperioratfinemotortasks
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