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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Slide 1
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Struck by a bullet in the back of his brain
{
Lost sight in the right visual field but maintained partial vision in left visual field
{
Could accurately guess about the presence or absence of light
{
Difficulty reading and recognizing faces
{
P.M.
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W}]Wv/viµ^}o][s]µot}o
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Parieto-occipital surface
{
Contains much of primary visual cortex
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Separates upper and lower visual fields
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Calcarine Sulcus
{
Medial Surface
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V2 and VP
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Lingual gyrus
{
V4
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Fusiform gyrus
{
Ventral Surface
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Slide 3
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Anatomy of the Occipital Lobes
Slide 4
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Upper for visual search and recognition
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Lower for visuomotor guidance
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Upper and lower fields may have different functions
{
Fred Previc
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Subdivisions of the Occipital Cortex
Laminar organization most distinct of all cortical areas (striate cortex)
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Area V1
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Slide 5
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Subdivisions of the Occipital Cortex
Has more than one distinct function
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Stripes revealed when stained -striate cortex
Thin stripe -colour perception
Thick and pale stripe -form and motion perception, respectively
Preserved in V2
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Heterogenous
{
Area V1
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Slide 6
Slide 7
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Connections of the Visual Cortex
Input from LGN
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Output to all other levels
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Primary Visual Cortex (V1)
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Output to all other levels
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Visual guidance of movement
Dorsal Stream
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Object perception/colour
Ventral Stream
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After V2
{
Secondary Visual Cortex (V2)
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Connections of the Visual Cortex
The Occipital Lobes
Saturday, April 03, 2010
4:00 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Object perception/colour
Ventral Stream
Visuospatial functions & some movement
STS (superior temporal sulcus) Stream
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Slide 8
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See "a theory" page 354
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Vision-related areas in the brain make up about 55% of the total cortex in monkeys
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Multiple visual regions in the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes
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Slide 9
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Differences among ventral-stream regions are a matter of degree of activity, not mere presenceof
activity
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Beyond the Occipital Lobe: Functions
Required to direct specific movements
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Parietal Visual Areas in the Dorsal Stream
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Sensitive to movement of the target
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E.g., reaching, ducking, catching
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1) Vision for Action
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Five Categories of Vision
Visual Scanning
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Eye Movements and Selective Attention
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Bias for left visual field
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2) Action for Vision
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Slide 11
We are very good at recognizing and discriminating stimuli
{
Is this specialized? E.g., temporal lobes for biologically significant information, such as faces,
as well as regions for objects and places
{
3) Visual Recognition
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Objects have location both relative to an individual (e) and relative to one another (a)
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Central to control of actions toward objects
Coded in neural systems relation to vision for action it seems
Egocentric
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Necessary for you to construct a memory of spatial location
Depends on identity of particular features of the world
Allocentric
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Spatial location: egocentric space vs. allocentricspace
{
Parietal and Temporal Lobes
{
4) Visual Space
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Selective attention for specific visual input
{
Parietal lobes guide movements
{
Temporal lobes help in object recognition
{
5) Visual Attention
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Slide 12
Dorsal vs. ventral visual system
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Recall D.F. from chapter/lecture 1
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Beyond the Occipital Lobe: Pathways
Milner & Goodale: The dorsal stream is a set of systems for on-line visual control of action
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1) Visual neurons in the parietal cortex are active only when the brain acts on visual
information (monkeys)
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2) Three pathways run from V1 to the parietal cortex, likely functionally dissociable
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3) Visual impairments after parietal lesions can be characterized as visuomotor or
orientational
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Evidence:
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Slide 14
Slide 15
What about the STS stream?
Slide 16
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
www.notesolution.com

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Description
TheOccipital Lobes Saturday,April 03,2010 4:00PM Slide1 9}]9LLE^}o][ZI]ZoJ}o P.M. { Struckbya bulletinthebackofhisbrain { Lostsightintheright visualfieldbutmaintainedpartialvisioninleftvisualfield { Couldaccuratelyguessaboutthepresenceorabsenceoflight { Difficultyreadingandrecognizingfaces Anatomyof the OccipitalLobes Nocleardivisiononlateralsurfaceofbrain MedialSurface { Parieto-occipitalsurface { CalcarineSulcus Containsmuchofprimaryvisualcortex Separatesupperandlowervisualfields VentralSurface { Lingualgyrus V2and VP { Fusiformgyrus V4 Slide3 SubdivisionsoftheOccipitalCortex Slide4 FredPrevic { Upperandlowerfieldsmayhavedifferentfunctions Upperforvisualsearchandrecognition Lowerforvisuomotorguidance SubdivisionsoftheOccipitalCortex AreaV1 { Laminarorganizationmostdistinctofallcorticalareas(striatecortex) Slide5 Slide6 AreaV1 { Heterogenous Hasmorethan onedistinctfunction PreservedinV2 Stripesrevealedwhenstained-striatecortex Thinstripe-colourperception Thickandpalestripe-formand motionperception,respectively ConnectionsoftheVisualCortex Slide7 ConnectionsoftheVisualCortex PrimaryVisualCortex(V1) InputfromLGN Outputtoallotherlevels SecondaryVisualCortex(V2) Outputtoallotherlevels { AfterV2 DorsalStream Visualguidanceofmovement VentralStream Objectperceptioncolour www.notesolution.com
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