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PSY345H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Language Disorder, Communication Disorder, Deaf Culture


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY345H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Study Guide
Final

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PSY345 FINAL STUDY PACKAGE
Chapter Six: Exceptionalities & Families
What is the Social Ecological System consist of?
- Purpose
- Cultural Beliefs
- Parent/Child Roles
- Exceptions
- Socio-economic circumstances
The stages in finding out your child has a disability
1. Shock – This is where parents may blame themselves and/or reassess the meaning of their
lives for the present challenges
2. Realization This is where the parents come to understand the actual demands and
constraints when raising a child with a disability
3. Defensive Retreat The parent will either place the child in a clinical or residential
setting because they believe that it would be a safer and less demanding environment
4. Acknowledgement – This is where the parents will accept that the child has a disability
What is respite care?
It is assistance provided by individuals outside of the immediate family to give parents and other
children time away from the child with the disability
Does having a child with a disability affect their marital state?
There is a small negative impact on marital adjustment
Spina Bifida – A developmental defect in the spinal column
Down Syndrome A condition caused by a chromosomal abnormality that results in
physical characteristics and varying degrees of mental retardation
The Parent-Child Relationship as a Developmental Sequence
1. Parent learns or suspects that the child may have a disability Diagnostic Period
2. Parent makes plans regarding the child’s education School Period
3. Individuals with the disability has completed his or her education Post-school Period
4. Parents are older and unable to care for their adult offspring
Dyadic Relationship – Two individuals who develop and maintain a significant affiliation
over time. For example, the child may use the mother as an exclusive channel of
communication.
Important Notes on the Family Dynamics:
- Fathers of sons with mental retardations are more concerned about their future and are
more likely to be involved with the child if they can speak and interact
- 6.5 million children in the USA have a sibling with a disability
- There is a strong correlation between grandparents support and positive paternal
adjustment
- Millions of children with disabilities live with their grandparents as the primary care
givers

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PSY345 FINAL STUDY PACKAGE
What is Primary Behaviour Support (PBS)?
An approach to developing behaviours that “facilitate and promote comprehensive lifestyle
changes for enhancing [the] quality of life for both the individual and his or her family
COMMUNICATION DISORDERS
Chapter TEN – Communication Disorders
A baby says their first word between 9-14 months
There are 6 stages
1. 1-2 months – crying or making other psychological sounds
2. 3-6 months – cooing and crying
3. 9-14 months – speaking their first words & babbling
4. 18-24 months – First sentence as well as words
5. 3-4 years – Basic syntactical structure
6. 4-8 years – Articulating all speech sounds in context
Communication is one of the most complicated and vital processes we undertake; yet we seldom
think about it unless there is a problem
- We take it for granted unless there is a problem (even if the problem is mild) such as
differences in intonations
- Chinese intonations are recognized immediately
What is communication?
interchange of ideas, opinions or facts between people (exchanging information)
- Nonverbal communication takes place in one direction unless you speak up
- Not being able to communicate the same as everyone else is a major obstacle (greatest obstacle
in belonging to mainstream society)
Speech and Language
Forms of communication
Speech is how we communicate and language is what we communicate
- Some components of communication involve language but not speech (body language, ASL,
gesturing & reading and writing)
- Reading and writing has become much more prominent now that we all have smartphones
- We never use to write letters to one another but now it is used through emails and text
messages (back in the day we would only sit down and write a letter twice a year or so to
someone who lived far away)
- It was once considered that people that do not have speech do not have language (deaf and
dumb)
- Could not speak because you are deaf (not true) and therefore, you were mute
- The term of mute was called (the term for someone that cannot speak) but they certainty do
have language (Story: Husband is deaf from birth communicates in ASL but does read and write
and language, after 5-10 minutes writing and reading to him felt completely natural, there would
be facial expressions and gestures)
- It is all a matter of what we consider to be normal

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PSY345 FINAL STUDY PACKAGE
- Speech is one means of expressing language but not the only
The message we use in communication is the language
- Speech is just one of the particular modalities that we use to communicate with each other
The Structure of Language
Phonology: The system of speech sounds (syllables, phonemes) not all of languages use all of
the phonemes (we need to develop them early on in life or it will be difficult to pronounce them)
- Set number of phonemes that certain languages use
* Rules about what kinds of sounds that can be combined with others and what cannot
A phonological disorder - This person won't be able to pronounce certain types of speech sounds
(Example "L" many kids have a hard time with this and don't pronounce it) it is mild but it is still
a disorder
Syntax: Rules that govern sentence structure. Sequences of words are combined into phrases and
sentences
* word order (reversing them can get completely different meanings)
* These disorder tend to be more cognitive and linguistic because they don't understand word
order
* It is hard to understand them if they are not using the same conventions as everyone else
(Arbitrary because word order is not consistent across cultures)
Morphology: Form and internal structure of the word (colder, cold, "ing") – The difference from
“colder” to “coldest”
* People who understand it understand the deeper meanings of the words Problems is when
people will have a hard time expressing the meanings and the different versions of the words
* They will have a harder time with the tenses that are determined by the types of suffixes
Semantics: Represent the understanding of language (cognitive problem) Can take shape in
many different forms:
* Cannot understand the meaning of certain words people will talk to you and you won’t
understand what they are saying
* Will only understand frequently used words
* Hard time coming up with the right words that you want to express (intelligent but cannot
express the words because you cannot attach meaning to the verbal or auditory expression of the
idea)
Pragmatics: Concerned with use of language in social contexts
* Set the language in a certain way because you are aware of the setting and you know what that
setting entails (seeing the prof during his office hours) There is a certain format that you are
going to use because you are aware of that setting and know what that certain atmosphere entails
* People who understand pragmatics do understand the language differences (sending the prof an
email will be different from the email that you send your friends)
Tourette's Syndrome - repeat language over and over again, may swear alot, do not have that
type of self-control over language (this is a type of pragmatic language disorder)
- Autism may cause them to swear a lot because they do not have control over their language
Overall, language structure is very complex and there are many areas that can be disrupted by
disorders
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