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Midterm

# PSY371H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Heritability, Discriminant Validity, Working Memory Training

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY371H5
Professor
Strang Burton
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSY371 Practice Test Questions (Section A)
(Warning: some answers might not be fully correct, please study this material with your
notes)
1. Galton and Binet were both influential players in the development of
modern intelligence testing. Describe how their ideas about measuring
intelligence differed?
a. Galton suggested that there is individual difference and can be
systematically measured and compared. He believed IQ is inherited, to
demonstrate this idea, he was the first one to use twin studies. He
believed sensory abilities were related to intelligence. Galton invented
regression analysis and concept of correlation between items that tend to
relate to each other.
b. Binet suggested we shouldn’t compare individual, there is no single
intelligence in people and intelligence is highly affect by experience. He
purposed that intelligence increase with age. He was the first developed
intelligence test and developed mental cognitive abilities test on French
children to determine whether they could go to regular school system or
need extra help.
2. How is factor analysis used in intelligence testing? What do factor loadings
represent?
a. Factor analysis is used to determine how many dimensions are required to
account for the variability between scores. It finds correlations between
different subsets. It extracts factors and dimensions that are in common.
All tests measure variability due to specific abilities and some degree of
communality between subsets. “Strong” model extract common variance
first then look for residual variance. Spearman described the positive
manifold of the subtests of cognitive ability. The positive manifold leads to
a single first factor in factor analysis—g.
b. Factor leading represent the community/correlations. The higher the factor
loading, the higher the correlation. One way to access validity is to look for
factor loadings. If the subset correlate with the scale and the scales are
3. In class we discuss 2 types of test bias. Describe these 2 types of bias and
discuss whether IQ test should be considered biased against different
races?
a. A statistically biases test makes different predicts about different groups
people (No predictive invariance). For example: for one group, IQ is
related to race, and for another group IQ is not related to race. This type of
bias test is doing different things for different group, thus it has no
predictive invariance. We want to have same prediction for all groups.
b. A general test bias results when differences in two groups are result of the
nature of the test rather the ability (No measurement invariance). The

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difference is resulted of something biased in the test. For example: ghetto
test are biased White people are bad at answering those ghetto questions,
and suggests Black will out score White on this test.
c. IQ test generally do not have statistical bias but it may have general test
bias.
d. Yes and No. The major difficulty with research on race difference and IQ is
political opinion is political opinion. Another problem is lack of high quality
research. Pure races are unlikely, but different gene frequencies are
observed between groups. Even sorting group based on inherited traits
doesn’t imply genetically separate groups. There are no such genes that
distinguish different races the same as genes involved in intelligence. And
it is unlikely suggest IQ difference is sorely depend on either intelligence
genes or environment factors.
4. In which ways are Multiple Intelligence theory and Triarchic theory of
intelligence similar? In which ways do they differ? What, is anything, do
they have in common with G theory?
a. Multiple intelligence are multiple, independent modules for storing and
processing different types of information that have value within a culture.
The intelligence represent processing ability, the cognitive ability to deal
with certain situation. Across time what people value changes, the type of
behavior might change. In order to be called intelligence it has to be
something that society value. Gardner believes intelligence is independent
but abilities are not, which means abilities will require multiple
intelligences. Abilities can require interactive systems and content.
Intelligence is the latent potential to process information.
b. Triarchic theory promotes the successful intelligence. It states intelligence
involves capitalizing on strengths and compensating for weakness in three
areas: analytic, creative and practical. Intelligence involves processing
that is universal; intelligence is not content specific; behavior outcomes
may differ. Unlike MI theory, people differ in level of intelligence. People
can differ in overall intelligence, you can be smarter than someone else.
And intelligent people can use their strengths to their ability.
c. MI theory and Triarchic theory are both agree with multiple intelligences.
They both agree that intelligence can interact.
d. MI theory has property as spotlight which is considered to be broad and
incorporate different intelligences, which is similar to G theory. Triarchic’s
theory’s analytic intelligence is similar to common intelligence “G”.
5. Describe Galton’s contribution to modern intelligence testing. Make sure to
explain the novel contributions for his time.
a. Galton was the first person to suggest that cognitive differences between
individuals could be systematically measured and compared.
b. He was the first to propose that intelligence might be inherited. Before
that, it was assumed that all men had equal intelligence and success was