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Psychology Lab Test Review #1

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Dax Urbszat

Psychology Lab Test Review: Semester 1 Lab 1: Measurement and Experimental Design What is the scientific method? Proves that some variable (x) causes people to behave a certain way (y) while other variables (z) that might affect behavior are held constant. Observe twice: when x is present & when x isn’t present. X = independent variable Thing experimenter is changing to see how it affects performance Y = dependent variable Always the measure of behavior Z = controlled variable Anything that remains constant through experiment Alcohol affects balance – Thought test - Walk a 38 foot balance beam Tuesday morning with full rest, breakfast, loose clothing, proper shoes and pay them - Gravity, oxygen, and alive (all constant z factors) - Next day do the same but after drinking 10 beers - If there is a difference in score it is because of alcohol Independent Variable (x) - amount of beer drank Dependent Variable (y) - how far they walk on balance beam Controlled Variable (z) - Gravity, oxygen, alive Progressive Error – Dart Board Experiment Progressive error: one condition benefits more from practice than other conditions - Blow on hand and bet you’ll do better - Already done 4 practice darts so in the second set of 4 they’ve already had practice - Use counterbalancing to control for progressive error Counterbalancing: makes sure both conditions benefit equally from practice Ex. A B vs. A B B A 4 4 2 2 2 2 Random Error – Golf Ball Experiment Random Error: when you measure the same thing twice and get a different answer When you try to see how far you can hit a golf ball and each time you hit it the ball goes a different distance - use averages of repeated tests in same environment to control for random error Lab 2: Illusions and Psychophysics (Muller-Lyer Illusion) How did we measure the size of your illusion? Shown two lines at a time that had wings on them. One was a referent line that was always 142 pixels and the other was a comparison line, which there were 12 different lengths of. The independent variable was the change in length of the comparison line. The dependent variable was how often you said the comparison line was longer. The method of constant stimuli was used to counterbalance progressive error by presenting the lines in a random order and not by ascending or descending order. And to counterbalance random error we took several observations and averaged the score. We measured the illusion by measuring the absolute threshold where the stimulus is detected 50% of the time, so the length you called larger 50% of the time. Calculated it by subtracting the reference length from your absolute threshold. What is the distinction between sensation and perception? Sensation is the stimulation of sense organs and perception is the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input. Illusions happen because we make wrong perceptions. Sensation begins with a detectable stimulus. Feature Detection Theory Bottom-up Processing: when you identify the whole by looking at its pieces Top-down Processing: already have a hint of what it is so you identify it easily Signal Detection Theory Sensory processes(sensitivity) + decision processes(bias) Lab 3: Dream Analysis Compare and contrast Freud and Jung’s dream analysis theory Freud believes that dreams are caused by repressed unconscious desires. He split the psyche into three parts: the ego (conscious), the ID (unconscious), and the super ego (sense of right & wrong). The ego has to balance the desires of the ID and the super ego. Freud believes that these desires disguise their true meanings in bizarre symbolic messages through dreams. Jung agrees with Freud’s theory apart from the source of our conflicts. Freud believes our animalistic desires create all conflict where as Jung says our dreams reveal unconscious aspects of our personality that help better ourselves. Free associating - come up with associat
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