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L8 & notes - Language and Thought copy.docx

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PSY100 – Nov. 12 2012 Lecture 8 – Language and Thought Slide 1 Slide 2 – Language - language developed as a result of tool making: making tools engages the same part of the brain that language does and we learn to plan ahead in many steps of the design of the tool - language is a quantitative difference: we can do language much better than other species - how language began: emotion is the first communication - apes and chimpanzees laugh when they play-fight - humans are good at meeting strangers and tolerating them - what is language? It’s a set of sounds. Shared meaning to a symbol and a sound. - You learn language best when you are young - Phonemes: thee are about a hundred of them (40 in the English language); just the alphabet - Morphemes: 50,000 english morphemes (ie. –ly, anything that changes the meaning of the word) Slide 3 – Nonverbal Communication - 90% of our communication is done without words/language - vocal intonation: the tone at which you say something o ie. Raising the tone of the last syllable when you speak: turns everything into a question (up-talking) - predators can tell if you are good victim material by your body language - physical distance: if you’re too close, people start to become uncomfortable - facial expressions: ie. Angry look on your face indicates you are mad. Slide 4 – Language Development - we start learning language at 4 months of age - humans are language learning machines - 6 months: babbling – first most common sound ‘Duh’ ‘dada’, 2 most nd common sound: mama - 18-24 months: learning language super fast - we need exposure to real language during our period of critical development and if you’re not exposed to it, you’ll make up a language based on the sounds that you’re exposed to - all children have the innate power to create and e
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