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Final Exam-psy100.doc

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Dax Urbszat

____ 1) Renata recently had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan done. The results showed that her brain has enlarged ventricles and a thalamus that is smaller than normal. If Renata has a psychological disorder, the results of her MRI scan would suggest that the disorder is most likely A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. bipolar disorder C. schizophrenia D. dissociative identity disorder ____ 2) Felicia is a participant in a study on stress reactions. Which of the following instruments would most likely be used to measure her muscle tension? A. electromyograph B. circadiometer C. electroencephalograph D. polygraph ____ 3) Roger enjoys gambling so much that he does it every day, totally neglecting his family and job. Roger's behavior satisfies which criterion of abnormality most clearly? A. personal distress B. deviance C. persistence D. maladaptive behavior ____ 4) Angelina and Dominque are best friends. Angelina contracts rubella and Dominque catches it from her. At the time they are sick with the disease, Angelina is 4 weeks pregnant and Dominque is 8 months pregnant. The most likely outcome in this situation is A. Angelina's baby will be unaffected by the disease, but Dominque's baby will have physical defects as a result of Dominque's rubella infection B. both babies will have physical defects as a result of their mothers' rubella C. neither baby will have physical defects as a result of their mothers' rubella D. Dominque's baby will be unaffected by the disease, but Angelina's baby will have physical defects as a result of Angelina's rubella infection ____ 5) Which of the following psychologists took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes? A. Sigmund Freud B. B. F. Skinner C. Carl Rogers D. Abraham Maslow ____ 6) According to research findings, which of the following has been found to be associated with higher grades? A. not changing answers on tests B. attending class regularly C. writing down everything your instructor says D. putting off studying until just before an exam ____ 7) Sir Francis Galton is generally recognized for which of the following contributions? A. coined the phrase "nature versus nurture" B. invented the concept of correlation C. assessed mental ability by measuring reaction time D. all of these contributions ____ 8) The Thematic Apperception Test is composed of A. inkblots B. forced-choice items C. ambiguous pictures D. true-false items ____ 9) The volley principle suggests that A. spreading effects from one semicircular canal to another interact to produce pitch perception for frequencies higher than 5,000 Hz B. ossicles of the middle ear "echo" or "volley" auditory transmission back and forth to stimulate hair cells C. sound localization is an interpretation of time discrepancies between the time when the same sound reaches each ear D. groups of auditory neurons are able fire neural impulses in rapid succession, sending signals that exceed the firing rate of any single neuron ____ 10) Biofeedback would be least successful in the treatment of A. migraine headaches B. high blood pressure C. anxiety D. bipolar disorder ____ 11) A code of 90 on Axis V of DSM-IV (global assessment of functioning) is associated with A. behavior considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations B. serious symptoms or impairment C. absent or minimal symptoms D. persistent danger of severely hurting self or others ____ 12) Research on factors contributing to building relationships seems to support the adage A. "similarity breeds contempt" B. "similarity breeds liking" C. "similarity builds uncertainty" D. "similarity builds discrimination" ____ 13) Reba has an uncanny ability to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people. According to Gardner, Reba has a high level of __________ intelligence. A. socioemotional B. interpersonal C. linguistic D. parapsychotic ____ 14) You enter a room and notice a distinctive new smell. After a bit of time you no longer smell the odor. This illustrates the phenomenon of A. progressive desensitization B. sensory contrast C. sensory novelty D. sensory adaptation ____ 15) Agoraphobia is a fear of A. heights B. going out to public places C. closed spaces D. fluffy sweaters ____ 16) About what proportion of women surveyed on 32 college campuses (Koss, Gidycz, and Wisniewski, 1987) reported having been victimized by date rape? A. 2 in 3 B. 1 in 2 C. 1 in 7 D. 1 in 15 ____ 17) According to the fundamental attribution error, actors tend to attribute their own behavior to __________ factors, and observers tend to attribute the behavior of others to __________ factors. A. personal; personal B. personal; situational C. situational; personal D. situational; situational ____ 18) Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which instances come to mind is called the A. law of small numbers B. representativeness heuristic C. conjunction fallacy D. availability heuristic ____ 19) In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given A. after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses B. after a variable number of nonreinforced responses C. for the first response that occurs after a fixed amount of time has elapsed D. for the first response that occurs after a variable amount of time has elapsed ____ 20) When you tell yourself that you will never be happy again now that your significant other has ended the relationship, you are engaging in what Albert Ellis calls A. catharsis B. catastrophic thinking C. calamitous thinking D. primary appraisal ____ 21) The moon illusion occurs when A. you perceive the moon to be smaller on the horizon than overhead B. you perceive the moon to be larger on the horizon than overhead C. you perceive the moon to be the same size when viewed on the horizon and overhead D. you think you see the moon when in fact it is not there ____ 22) If a subject is presented with a series of pairs of light bulbs of different wattages and is asked whether the members of each pair differ in brightness, which of the following is being measured? A. the physical intensity difference between the two lights B. the subject's just noticeable difference for brightness C. the subject's absolute threshold for brightness D. the subject's visual acuity ____ 23) A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations is called A. a theory B. a hypothesis C. a conceptualization D. an application ____ 24) In an attempt to develop a "culture-free" measure of intelligence, researchers are focusing on A. brain-wave pattern analysis B. reaction times C. sensory discrimination D. none of these measures ____ 25) The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is A. encoding->retrieval->storage B. encoding->storage->retrieval C. storage->retrieval->acquisition D. acquisition->encoding->retrieval ____ 26) Reabsorption of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron is referred to as A. cyclomyosis B. regrading C. uploading D. reuptake ____ 27) Yesenia has an anxiety disorder. Based on research that has investigated the correlations between psychological disorders and personality traits, it is likely that Yesenia will score A. low in openness B. low in extroversion C. high in neuroticism D. high in agreeableness ____ 28) Which of the following would constitute the strongest evidence for environmental influence in intelligence? A. similarity in IQ between parents and their biological children B. similarity in IQ between identical twins reared together C. similarity in IQ between adopted children and their foster parents D. similarity in IQ between adopted children and their biological parents ____ 29) When Jackie watches slasher movies she covers her eyes when the blood starts to splatter; when Clarice watches slasher movies she covers her eyes as soon as she hears ominous music start to play. Jackie's response is consistent with __________ while Clarice's response is consistent with __________. A. escape responding; avoidance responding B. avoidance responding; escape responding C. negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement D. classical conditioning; operant conditioning ____ 30) Premises are to conclusions as __________ is/are to __________. A. legs; a table B. a pencil; a pen C. a bird; feathers D. a floppy disk; a computer ____ 31) Which of the following is least closely associated with left hemisphere functioning? A. speaking B. musical recognition C. reading D. writing words ____ 32) An important goal of client-centered therapy is to A. help clients realize they don't have to worry constantly about approval from others B. help clients achieve a greater understanding of how long-repressed childhood conflicts can affect their adult behavior C. change the ways clients think D. modify clients' maladaptive behavior patterns ____ 33) When an individual has a phobia, the irrational fear and anxiety that the person experiences is A. a conditioned response B. an unconditioned response C. a conditioned stimulus D. an unconditioned stimulus ____ 34) With __________, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding. A. structural encoding B. self-referent encoding C. mnemonics D. semantics ____ 35) The ratio of attempted suicides to completed suicides tends to be highest in which of the following age groups? A. preteens B. teenagers C. those at midlife D. the aged ____ 36) Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by Gordon Allport to __________ basic dimensions of personality. A. 5 B. 10 C. 16 D. 27 ____ 37) The four essential characteristics of language are that it must be A. symbolic, generative, phonemic, and structured B. syntactic, symbolic, generative, and semantic C. semantic, symbolic, structured, and generative D. generative, rule governed, phonemic, and syntactic ____ 38) In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would A. present the UCS before the CS several times B. present the CS alone several times C. present the UCS alone several times D. present extra pairings of the CS and UCS th ____ 39) Gilbert did not date much prior to his marriage, and he recently celebrated his 35 wedding anniversary. He spent a lot of time with his three children when they were growing up, and he has been very involved with the raising of his grandchildren. Based on Belsky's research, if you looked at Gilbert's early childhood, you might expect to find that he grew up in __________ environment, and that he formed __________ attachment with his parents. A. an unsafe, impoverished; an insecure B. an unsafe, impoverished; a secure C. a safe, enriched; a secure D. a safe, enriched; an insecure ____ 40) Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired through which of the following? A. logical reasoning B. common sense C. historical tradition D. direct observation ____ 41) Bernard is now 80 years old. When he was 20 years old he took part in a detailed study that assessed various aspects of his intellectual functioning. If Bernard were to complete the same tests today, he would most likely discover that A. his fluid intelligence has declined over time, but his crystallized intelligence has remained stable B. both his fluid and crystallized intelligence have declined over time C. his crystallized intelligence has declined over time, but his fluid intelligence has remained stable D. his fluid intelligence has remained stable over time, and his crystallized intelligence has increased ____ 42) Maranda tells you that her 12-year-old cousin recently completed an intelligence test that translated raw scores into deviation IQ scores. Maranda knows that her cousin's score was 75, but she is not sure what this means. You should tell her that her cousin A. answered 75% of the questions correctly on the test B. scored below the mean for 12-year-olds C. scored above the mean for 12-year-olds D. scored at the mean for the average 9-year-old ____ 43) Which of the following is not a common characteristic of the antisocial personality? A. manipulative behavior B. excessive guilt C. social charm D. aggressiveness ____ 44) The "bystander effect" is the finding that A. the probability that a witness to an emergency will help increases as the number of bystanders increases B. a group of witnesses to an emergency will all tend to cooperate to provide help C. the probability that a witness to an emergency will help decreases as the number of bystanders increases Iiibystanders' willingness to help depends on the seriousness of the emergency ____ 45) Mayra wants to generate a set of anagrams for a contest in the campus paper. To generate the anagrams she starts with the words that the contestants need to come up with to win the contest, and then scrambles the letters. In this case, Mayra's method of solving the problem is consistent with the problem-solving heuristic known as A. means-end analysis B. searching for analogies C. working backward D. trial-and-error ____ 46) Derrick designed an experiment in which participants listened to a persuasive speech delivered either by a person who was very tall or a person who was average in height. In addition, the speeches were delivered either by individuals wearing business clothes or by people wearing casual clothes. In this example, Derrick A. has two dependent variables, and will be able to determine if persuasion interacts with any other factors B. has two independent variables, and will be able to determine if height and style of clothing interact C. does not have a control group, which should reduce the impact of self-reporting bias in his study D. is using a double-blind procedure, which should reduce experimenter bias ____ 47) You are watching a rat in a Skinner box, and every time a red light comes on the rat presses the lever in the box. However, when a green light comes on the rat never presses the lever. In this case it appears that the color of the light is acting as A. a positive reinforcer for bar pressing B. a negative reinforcer for bar pressing C. an unconditioned stimulus for bar pressing D. a discriminative stimulus for bar pressing ____ 48) Claire has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Based on the physical symptoms listed in your text, you should expect that Claire will show evidence of A. amenorrhea and low blood pressure B. dental problems and cardiac arrhythmias C. cardiac arrhythmias and elevated blood pressure D. metabolic disturbances and dental problems ____ 49) According to Festinger's cognitive dissonance research, you would predict greatest attitudinal change in a person who is led to lie by a(n) A. simple request to do so B. offer of one dollar to do so C. offer of extra grade points to do so D. offer of $50 to do so ____ 50) Interactionist theories of language development help to illustrate which of your text's unifying themes? A. Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior. B. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context. C. Our experience of the world is highly subjective. D. Psychology is empirical. ____ 51) A person who seeks emotional-sexual relationships with members of the same sex is referred to as A. heterosexual B. homosexual C. bisexual D. monogamous ____ 52) With which of the following would a behaviorist agree? A. Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way. B. In order to understand behavior, one must understand the motives behind the behavior. C. Behavior can only be explained in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual's interpretation of experience. D. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others. ____ 53) Abby was watching a documentary on some of the horrors of the Viet Nam War. Even when she saw soldiers being blown up after stepping on land mines, she showed no emotional reaction or response. In this case, Abby is displaying symptoms of A. catatonic stupor B. blunted or flat affect C. antisocial personality disorder D. conversion disorder ____ 54) Reliability refers to the __________ of a measuring device such as a test. A. consistency B. predictability C. accuracy of inference D. representativeness ____ 55) Which of the following is one of the major criticisms of the humanistic approach to personality? A. It is too deterministic. B. It is too optimistic about human nature. C. It presents a fragmented view of personality. D. It de-emphasizes the subjective nature of self-concept. ____ 56) In which of the following cases might the use of a defense mechanism be adaptive? A. blaming your coworker for mistakes you have made to save your job B. justifying cheating on your taxes by pointing out how little the wealthy pay in taxes C. jogging five miles a day as a way to release work-related frustrations D. refusing to admit flaws in your character, to maintain your self-esteem ____ 57) A major criticism of the medical model by Thomas Szasz is that A. no evidence exists to support the efficiency of the medical model's treatment approaches B. the model is not well understood by its practitioners C. uniformity of behavior patterns cannot be established from the medical model viewpoint D. most abnormal behavior reflects a moral judgment about what is socially acceptable or unacceptable behavior ____ 58) Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as A. semantic memory B. declarative memory C. implicit memory D. episodic memory ____ 59) Which of the following statements regarding group decision making is not accurate? A. Groupthink seems to promote incomplete gathering of information. B. Groups tend to focus on information that is unique to the individual members. C. Groups have a tendency to emphasize information that the members already share. D. Sound decision making depends on group members combining their information effectively. ____ 60) About __________ percent of the population appear to be exceptionally good subjects for hypnosis. A. 10 B. 25 C. 50 D. 75 ____ 61) A person who is occupied with his own thoughts and feelings, aloof, and contemplative exemplifies what Jung described as the __________ type. A. introspective B. extraverted C. reflective D. introverted ____ 62) Research on the role of the amygdala in the modulation of emotion has focused mainly on which of the following emotions? A. fear B. sadness C. surprise D. happiness ____ 63) The fact that the importance people place on dreams varies across societies best illustrates which the textbook's unifying themes? A. Psychology is empirical. B. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context. C. Our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage. D. Our experience of the world is highly subjective. ____ 64) At the end of her calculus course, Mary takes a test to determine how well she has mastered the material. Her calculus test is primarily A. an achievement test B. an intelligence test C. an aptitude test D. a test of her math potential ____ 65) Vanessa describes a new melody that she heard at a concert by telling you each of the individual notes, in the order that they were played. In providing this type of description, it appears that Vanessa processed the melody using A. top-down processing B. figure-ground processing C. opponent-processes D. bottom-up processing ____ 66) An infant who actively resists change, who fails to develop a regular sleeping and eating schedule, and who is generally irritable and unhappy is best described as temperamentally A. easy B. difficult C. slow to warm up D. mixed ____ 67) Peter and his wife are having sex when Peter's blood pressure increases sharply and he experiences a series of muscular contractions throughout his pelvis. Based on research conducted by Masters and Johnson A. Peter is likely to experience several more orgasms before he enters a refractory period B. Peter's muscular contractions are likely to produce an orgasm in his wife C. Peter will be relatively unresponsive to sexual stimulation for a period of time following his orgasm D. Peter will now pass into the plateau stage of the sexual response cycle ____ 68) Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. stress is a subjective experience B. the effects of stress are cumulative C. minor hassles may prove more stressful than major ones D. one should seek to avoid all stress ____ 69) Dr. Jacobsen is investigating the link between social support networks and grades in school. Students in his classes are required to complete survey forms related to this research. If a survey form is not completed by the end of the semester a student's grade is reduced by 10 points. In this case, some researchers might argue that Dr. Jacobsen's research violates the ethical principle of A. right to privacy B. protection for harm C. full disclosure D. informed consent ____ 70) Scripts are A. storage locations for memories B. schemata about procedures we use in daily life C. the associations we have with the denotative meaning of a word D. long-term sequences of actions that result from effective decision making ____ 71) The purveyors of miracle tonics and psychic advice tend to rely on which of the following forms of evidence? A. anecdotal evidence B. findings from observational research C. results from laboratory experiments D. findings from surveys and questionnaires ____ 72) Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory? A. "I'm shaking because I'm afraid." B. "I'm afraid because I'm shaking." C. "My shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire." D. "My fear is a built-in, primary reaction to a dangerous situation." ____ 73) Evolutionary theories of emotion assume all but which of the following? A. Emotions are largely innate. B. Emotions followed thought in the evolutionary sequence. C. Emotions originate in subcortical brain structures. D. Humans have a relatively small number of innate emotions with adaptive value. ____ 74) In adoption studies designed to examine the role of genetic disposition in obesity, researchers have found that adoptees A. were more like their biological parents in weight B. were more like their foster parents in weight C. did not resemble either set of parents in weight D. were more like their half-siblings than either set of parents ____ 75) Kailee has learned the word "kitty," but she uses this word when she is referring to cats, bunnies, squirrels, and other small furry animals. Kailee's use of this word illustrates A. overextension B. fast mapping C. telegraphic speech D. babbling ____ 76) Stephen wanders about while remaining asleep. Stephen's condition is called A. narcology B. sleep tremors C. somnambulism D. agnosia ____ 77) The combined effect of certain drugs can be much greater than the sum of the effects of each one alone. Such an effect is said to be A. additive B. polymorphous C. multiplicative D. synergistic ____ 78) Which of the following characteristics is least likely to be found in persons high in achievement motivation? A. tendency to select the hardest tasks B. tendency to delay gratification C. future-oriented D. persistent ____ 79) Cutting fibers in the neural pathway leading away from the periacqueductal gray in the midbrain A. reduces the perception of pain B. enhances the effects of morphine and other opiate drugs C. increases the perception of pain D. causes the release of endorphins ____ 80) Which of the following has been offered as an explanation for the misinformation effect? A. The new misinformation destroys and replaces the original memory of the event. B. The new misinformation interferes with the retrieval of the original memory. C. Individuals can access both the original memory and the altered memory, but they have difficulty distinguishing the original. D. All of these have been offered as explanations. ____ 81) Depression is an example of a __________ mood disorder. A. bipolar B. unipolar C. cyclical D. dissociative ____ 82) Reinhold is filling out the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and as he reads each question he thinks about the way most other people would probably respond. When he answers, he selects the alternative that he t
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