____ 1) Renata recently had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan done. The results showed that
her brain has enlarged ventricles and a thalamus that is smaller than normal. If Renata has a
psychological disorder, the results of her MRI scan would suggest that the disorder is most likely
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. bipolar disorder
D. dissociative identity disorder
____ 2) Felicia is a participant in a study on stress reactions. Which of the following instruments
would most likely be used to measure her muscle tension?
____ 3) Roger enjoys gambling so much that he does it every day, totally neglecting his family and
job. Roger's behavior satisfies which criterion of abnormality most clearly?
A. personal distress
D. maladaptive behavior
____ 4) Angelina and Dominque are best friends. Angelina contracts rubella and Dominque catches it
from her. At the time they are sick with the disease, Angelina is 4 weeks pregnant and Dominque
is 8 months pregnant. The most likely outcome in this situation is
A. Angelina's baby will be unaffected by the disease, but Dominque's baby will have physical
defects as a result of Dominque's rubella infection
B. both babies will have physical defects as a result of their mothers' rubella
C. neither baby will have physical defects as a result of their mothers' rubella
D. Dominque's baby will be unaffected by the disease, but Angelina's baby will have physical
defects as a result of Angelina's rubella infection
____ 5) Which of the following psychologists took the position that organisms tend to repeat
responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or
A. Sigmund Freud
B. B. F. Skinner
C. Carl Rogers
D. Abraham Maslow
____ 6) According to research findings, which of the following has been found to be associated with
A. not changing answers on tests
B. attending class regularly
C. writing down everything your instructor says
D. putting off studying until just before an exam
____ 7) Sir Francis Galton is generally recognized for which of the following contributions?
A. coined the phrase "nature versus nurture"
B. invented the concept of correlation
C. assessed mental ability by measuring reaction time
D. all of these contributions
____ 8) The Thematic Apperception Test is composed of
B. forced-choice items
C. ambiguous pictures
D. true-false items ____ 9) The volley principle suggests that
A. spreading effects from one semicircular canal to another interact to produce pitch
perception for frequencies higher than 5,000 Hz
B. ossicles of the middle ear "echo" or "volley" auditory transmission back and forth to
stimulate hair cells
C. sound localization is an interpretation of time discrepancies between the time when the
same sound reaches each ear
D. groups of auditory neurons are able fire neural impulses in rapid succession, sending
signals that exceed the firing rate of any single neuron
____ 10) Biofeedback would be least successful in the treatment of
A. migraine headaches
B. high blood pressure
D. bipolar disorder
____ 11) A code of 90 on Axis V of DSM-IV (global assessment of functioning) is associated with
A. behavior considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations
B. serious symptoms or impairment
C. absent or minimal symptoms
D. persistent danger of severely hurting self or others
____ 12) Research on factors contributing to building relationships seems to support the adage
A. "similarity breeds contempt"
B. "similarity breeds liking"
C. "similarity builds uncertainty"
D. "similarity builds discrimination"
____ 13) Reba has an uncanny ability to discern and respond appropriately to the moods,
temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people. According to Gardner, Reba has a high
level of __________ intelligence.
____ 14) You enter a room and notice a distinctive new smell. After a bit of time you no longer smell
the odor. This illustrates the phenomenon of
A. progressive desensitization
B. sensory contrast
C. sensory novelty
D. sensory adaptation
____ 15) Agoraphobia is a fear of
B. going out to public places
C. closed spaces
D. fluffy sweaters
____ 16) About what proportion of women surveyed on 32 college campuses (Koss, Gidycz, and
Wisniewski, 1987) reported having been victimized by date rape?
A. 2 in 3
B. 1 in 2
C. 1 in 7
D. 1 in 15
____ 17) According to the fundamental attribution error, actors tend to attribute their own behavior to
__________ factors, and observers tend to attribute the behavior of others to __________ factors.
A. personal; personal
B. personal; situational
C. situational; personal
D. situational; situational ____ 18) Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which instances come to mind
is called the
A. law of small numbers
B. representativeness heuristic
C. conjunction fallacy
D. availability heuristic
____ 19) In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
A. after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
B. after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
C. for the first response that occurs after a fixed amount of time has elapsed
D. for the first response that occurs after a variable amount of time has elapsed
____ 20) When you tell yourself that you will never be happy again now that your significant other has
ended the relationship, you are engaging in what Albert Ellis calls
B. catastrophic thinking
C. calamitous thinking
D. primary appraisal
____ 21) The moon illusion occurs when
A. you perceive the moon to be smaller on the horizon than overhead
B. you perceive the moon to be larger on the horizon than overhead
C. you perceive the moon to be the same size when viewed on the horizon and overhead
D. you think you see the moon when in fact it is not there
____ 22) If a subject is presented with a series of pairs of light bulbs of different wattages and is asked
whether the members of each pair differ in brightness, which of the following is being measured?
A. the physical intensity difference between the two lights
B. the subject's just noticeable difference for brightness
C. the subject's absolute threshold for brightness
D. the subject's visual acuity
____ 23) A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations is called
A. a theory
B. a hypothesis
C. a conceptualization
D. an application
____ 24) In an attempt to develop a "culture-free" measure of intelligence, researchers are focusing on
A. brain-wave pattern analysis
B. reaction times
C. sensory discrimination
D. none of these measures
____ 25) The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system
and is used later is
____ 26) Reabsorption of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron is referred to as
____ 27) Yesenia has an anxiety disorder. Based on research that has investigated the correlations
between psychological disorders and personality traits, it is likely that Yesenia will score
A. low in openness
B. low in extroversion
C. high in neuroticism
D. high in agreeableness ____ 28) Which of the following would constitute the strongest evidence for environmental influence
A. similarity in IQ between parents and their biological children
B. similarity in IQ between identical twins reared together
C. similarity in IQ between adopted children and their foster parents
D. similarity in IQ between adopted children and their biological parents
____ 29) When Jackie watches slasher movies she covers her eyes when the blood starts to splatter;
when Clarice watches slasher movies she covers her eyes as soon as she hears ominous music
start to play. Jackie's response is consistent with __________ while Clarice's response is
consistent with __________.
A. escape responding; avoidance responding
B. avoidance responding; escape responding
C. negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement
D. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
____ 30) Premises are to conclusions as __________ is/are to __________.
A. legs; a table
B. a pencil; a pen
C. a bird; feathers
D. a floppy disk; a computer
____ 31) Which of the following is least closely associated with left hemisphere functioning?
B. musical recognition
D. writing words
____ 32) An important goal of client-centered therapy is to
A. help clients realize they don't have to worry constantly about approval from others
B. help clients achieve a greater understanding of how long-repressed childhood conflicts can
affect their adult behavior
C. change the ways clients think
D. modify clients' maladaptive behavior patterns
____ 33) When an individual has a phobia, the irrational fear and anxiety that the person experiences is
A. a conditioned response
B. an unconditioned response
C. a conditioned stimulus
D. an unconditioned stimulus
____ 34) With __________, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to
other forms of encoding.
A. structural encoding
B. self-referent encoding
____ 35) The ratio of attempted suicides to completed suicides tends to be highest in which of the
following age groups?
C. those at midlife
D. the aged
____ 36) Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by
Gordon Allport to __________ basic dimensions of personality.
D. 27 ____ 37) The four essential characteristics of language are that it must be
A. symbolic, generative, phonemic, and structured
B. syntactic, symbolic, generative, and semantic
C. semantic, symbolic, structured, and generative
D. generative, rule governed, phonemic, and syntactic
____ 38) In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
A. present the UCS before the CS several times
B. present the CS alone several times
C. present the UCS alone several times
D. present extra pairings of the CS and UCS
____ 39) Gilbert did not date much prior to his marriage, and he recently celebrated his 35 wedding
anniversary. He spent a lot of time with his three children when they were growing up, and he has
been very involved with the raising of his grandchildren. Based on Belsky's research, if you
looked at Gilbert's early childhood, you might expect to find that he grew up in __________
environment, and that he formed __________ attachment with his parents.
A. an unsafe, impoverished; an insecure
B. an unsafe, impoverished; a secure
C. a safe, enriched; a secure
D. a safe, enriched; an insecure
____ 40) Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired through which of the following?
A. logical reasoning
B. common sense
C. historical tradition
D. direct observation
____ 41) Bernard is now 80 years old. When he was 20 years old he took part in a detailed study that
assessed various aspects of his intellectual functioning. If Bernard were to complete the same
tests today, he would most likely discover that
A. his fluid intelligence has declined over time, but his crystallized intelligence has remained stable
B. both his fluid and crystallized intelligence have declined over time
C. his crystallized intelligence has declined over time, but his fluid intelligence has remained stable
D. his fluid intelligence has remained stable over time, and his crystallized intelligence has increased
____ 42) Maranda tells you that her 12-year-old cousin recently completed an intelligence test that
translated raw scores into deviation IQ scores. Maranda knows that her cousin's score was 75, but
she is not sure what this means. You should tell her that her cousin
A. answered 75% of the questions correctly on the test
B. scored below the mean for 12-year-olds
C. scored above the mean for 12-year-olds
D. scored at the mean for the average 9-year-old
____ 43) Which of the following is not a common characteristic of the antisocial personality?
A. manipulative behavior
B. excessive guilt
C. social charm
____ 44) The "bystander effect" is the finding that
A. the probability that a witness to an emergency will help increases as the number of bystanders increases
B. a group of witnesses to an emergency will all tend to cooperate to provide help
C. the probability that a witness to an emergency will help decreases as the number of bystanders increases
Iiibystanders' willingness to help depends on the seriousness of the emergency ____ 45) Mayra wants to generate a set of anagrams for a contest in the campus paper. To generate the
anagrams she starts with the words that the contestants need to come up with to win the contest,
and then scrambles the letters. In this case, Mayra's method of solving the problem is consistent
with the problem-solving heuristic known as
A. means-end analysis
B. searching for analogies
C. working backward
____ 46) Derrick designed an experiment in which participants listened to a persuasive speech
delivered either by a person who was very tall or a person who was average in height. In addition,
the speeches were delivered either by individuals wearing business clothes or by people wearing
casual clothes. In this example, Derrick
A. has two dependent variables, and will be able to determine if persuasion interacts with any other factors
B. has two independent variables, and will be able to determine if height and style of clothing interact
C. does not have a control group, which should reduce the impact of self-reporting bias in his study
D. is using a double-blind procedure, which should reduce experimenter bias
____ 47) You are watching a rat in a Skinner box, and every time a red light comes on the rat presses
the lever in the box. However, when a green light comes on the rat never presses the lever. In this
case it appears that the color of the light is acting as
A. a positive reinforcer for bar pressing
B. a negative reinforcer for bar pressing
C. an unconditioned stimulus for bar pressing
D. a discriminative stimulus for bar pressing
____ 48) Claire has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Based on the physical symptoms listed in
your text, you should expect that Claire will show evidence of
A. amenorrhea and low blood pressure
B. dental problems and cardiac arrhythmias
C. cardiac arrhythmias and elevated blood pressure
D. metabolic disturbances and dental problems
____ 49) According to Festinger's cognitive dissonance research, you would predict greatest attitudinal
change in a person who is led to lie by a(n)
A. simple request to do so
B. offer of one dollar to do so
C. offer of extra grade points to do so
D. offer of $50 to do so
____ 50) Interactionist theories of language development help to illustrate which of your text's unifying
A. Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
B. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
C. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
D. Psychology is empirical.
____ 51) A person who seeks emotional-sexual relationships with members of the same sex is referred
____ 52) With which of the following would a behaviorist agree?
A. Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.
B. In order to understand behavior, one must understand the motives behind the behavior.
C. Behavior can only be explained in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual's
interpretation of experience.
D. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others. ____ 53) Abby was watching a documentary on some of the horrors of the Viet Nam War. Even when
she saw soldiers being blown up after stepping on land mines, she showed no emotional reaction
or response. In this case, Abby is displaying symptoms of
A. catatonic stupor
B. blunted or flat affect
C. antisocial personality disorder
D. conversion disorder
____ 54) Reliability refers to the __________ of a measuring device such as a test.
C. accuracy of inference
____ 55) Which of the following is one of the major criticisms of the humanistic approach to
A. It is too deterministic.
B. It is too optimistic about human nature.
C. It presents a fragmented view of personality.
D. It de-emphasizes the subjective nature of self-concept.
____ 56) In which of the following cases might the use of a defense mechanism be adaptive?
A. blaming your coworker for mistakes you have made to save your job
B. justifying cheating on your taxes by pointing out how little the wealthy pay in taxes
C. jogging five miles a day as a way to release work-related frustrations
D. refusing to admit flaws in your character, to maintain your self-esteem
____ 57) A major criticism of the medical model by Thomas Szasz is that
A. no evidence exists to support the efficiency of the medical model's treatment approaches
B. the model is not well understood by its practitioners
C. uniformity of behavior patterns cannot be established from the medical model viewpoint
D. most abnormal behavior reflects a moral judgment about what is socially acceptable or
____ 58) Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A. semantic memory
B. declarative memory
C. implicit memory
D. episodic memory
____ 59) Which of the following statements regarding group decision making is not accurate?
A. Groupthink seems to promote incomplete gathering of information.
B. Groups tend to focus on information that is unique to the individual members.
C. Groups have a tendency to emphasize information that the members already share.
D. Sound decision making depends on group members combining their information effectively.
____ 60) About __________ percent of the population appear to be exceptionally good subjects for
____ 61) A person who is occupied with his own thoughts and feelings, aloof, and contemplative
exemplifies what Jung described as the __________ type.
____ 62) Research on the role of the amygdala in the modulation of emotion has focused mainly on
which of the following emotions?
C. surprise D. happiness
____ 63) The fact that the importance people place on dreams varies across societies best illustrates
which the textbook's unifying themes?
A. Psychology is empirical.
B. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
C. Our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
D. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
____ 64) At the end of her calculus course, Mary takes a test to determine how well she has mastered
the material. Her calculus test is primarily
A. an achievement test
B. an intelligence test
C. an aptitude test
D. a test of her math potential
____ 65) Vanessa describes a new melody that she heard at a concert by telling you each of the
individual notes, in the order that they were played. In providing this type of description, it
appears that Vanessa processed the melody using
A. top-down processing
B. figure-ground processing
D. bottom-up processing
____ 66) An infant who actively resists change, who fails to develop a regular sleeping and eating
schedule, and who is generally irritable and unhappy is best described as temperamentally
C. slow to warm up
____ 67) Peter and his wife are having sex when Peter's blood pressure increases sharply and he
experiences a series of muscular contractions throughout his pelvis. Based on research conducted
by Masters and Johnson
A. Peter is likely to experience several more orgasms before he enters a refractory period
B. Peter's muscular contractions are likely to produce an orgasm in his wife
C. Peter will be relatively unresponsive to sexual stimulation for a period of time following his orgasm
D. Peter will now pass into the plateau stage of the sexual response cycle
____ 68) Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A. stress is a subjective experience
B. the effects of stress are cumulative
C. minor hassles may prove more stressful than major ones
D. one should seek to avoid all stress
____ 69) Dr. Jacobsen is investigating the link between social support networks and grades in school.
Students in his classes are required to complete survey forms related to this research. If a survey
form is not completed by the end of the semester a student's grade is reduced by 10 points. In this
case, some researchers might argue that Dr. Jacobsen's research violates the ethical principle of
A. right to privacy
B. protection for harm
C. full disclosure
D. informed consent
____ 70) Scripts are
A. storage locations for memories
B. schemata about procedures we use in daily life
C. the associations we have with the denotative meaning of a word
D. long-term sequences of actions that result from effective decision making
____ 71) The purveyors of miracle tonics and psychic advice tend to rely on which of the following
forms of evidence?
A. anecdotal evidence
B. findings from observational research
C. results from laboratory experiments D. findings from surveys and questionnaires
____ 72) Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations
best represents the James-Lange theory?
A. "I'm shaking because I'm afraid."
B. "I'm afraid because I'm shaking."
C. "My shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire."
D. "My fear is a built-in, primary reaction to a dangerous situation."
____ 73) Evolutionary theories of emotion assume all but which of the following?
A. Emotions are largely innate.
B. Emotions followed thought in the evolutionary sequence.
C. Emotions originate in subcortical brain structures.
D. Humans have a relatively small number of innate emotions with adaptive value.
____ 74) In adoption studies designed to examine the role of genetic disposition in obesity, researchers
have found that adoptees
A. were more like their biological parents in weight
B. were more like their foster parents in weight
C. did not resemble either set of parents in weight
D. were more like their half-siblings than either set of parents
____ 75) Kailee has learned the word "kitty," but she uses this word when she is referring to cats,
bunnies, squirrels, and other small furry animals. Kailee's use of this word illustrates
B. fast mapping
C. telegraphic speech
____ 76) Stephen wanders about while remaining asleep. Stephen's condition is called
B. sleep tremors
____ 77) The combined effect of certain drugs can be much greater than the sum of the effects of each
one alone. Such an effect is said to be
____ 78) Which of the following characteristics is least likely to be found in persons high in
A. tendency to select the hardest tasks
B. tendency to delay gratification
____ 79) Cutting fibers in the neural pathway leading away from the periacqueductal gray in the
A. reduces the perception of pain
B. enhances the effects of morphine and other opiate drugs
C. increases the perception of pain
D. causes the release of endorphins
____ 80) Which of the following has been offered as an explanation for the misinformation effect?
A. The new misinformation destroys and replaces the original memory of the event.
B. The new misinformation interferes with the retrieval of the original memory.
C. Individuals can access both the original memory and the altered memory, but they have
difficulty distinguishing the original.
D. All of these have been offered as explanations.
____ 81) Depression is an example of a __________ mood disorder.
B. unipolar C. cyclical
____ 82) Reinhold is filling out the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and as he
reads each question he thinks about the way most other people would probably respond. When he
answers, he selects the alternative that he t