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Dax Urbszat

Test 2PsychL0101 MW 1112 room 2072 Test 2 2003 1Give a definition for and an example of sensation 2 marksSensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear2What is a Just Noticeable Difference 2 marksA JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect3Describe the main visual pathway in the brain3 marksNeural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to the thalamus which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus LGN Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex Here the main pathway splits in two directions to the what and where pathways4Explain the OpponentProcess theory of color vision What areas of the brain are associated with this theory 4 marksColor perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors redgreen yellowblue and blackwhite Evidence for this theory is found in ganglion cells in the retina lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex that respond in opposite ways to red versus green and blue versus yellow For example some ganglion cells are excited by green and inhibited by yellow and vice versa5Brain waves that occur when relaxed and calm are calledwaves 1 markalpha6Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the unconscious 3 marksUnconscious processes are rapid and efficient so we can act without having to consciously think and analyze the situation Also unconscious processes can operate simultaneously with conscious processes so we can do more than one thing at a time eg think about psychology while driving a car Finally the unconscious will operate in the absence of consciousness such as when we are sleeping 7What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by episodes of intense panic that occur during deep sleep early in the night 1 markNight Terrors8Explain the Cognitive view of dreaming 4 marksThe Cognitive view believes that dreams are constructed from the daily issues faced by the dreamer and that much of what we dream about is simply processing the information that we have attended to throughout the day This view does not see dreams as particularly insightful or meaningful rather dreams are simply a way to clean out the brains memory storage units to make room for new information to be processed the next day I will accept the Problemsolving view of dreams here also 99Explain the terms Acquisition Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery as they pertain to classical conditioning 4 marks Acquisition refers to repeated pairings of an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus that converts the neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response Extinction refers to the weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response1010What is instinctive drift 2 marks Instinctive drift occurs when an animals innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes1111Explain and give examples for positive and negative punishment4 marks Positive punishment is when a negative or aversive event follows a behavior and weakens the tendency for that behavior to occur again An example is a child who gets scolded for throwing their foodNegative punishment is when a positive or pleasant stimulus is removed following some behavior in order to weaken the tendency of that behavior to occur again An example is when a child stays out past curfew so the parent takes away their TV for a weekL0301 MW 34 K 137 Test 2 2003 1What is the difference between sensation and perception 2 marksSensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment whereas perception is the selection organization and subjective interpretation of sensory input2What is an absolute threshold 2 marks
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