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Test #3.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Test 3PsychL0101 MW 1112 1Name the type of encoding used for each level in the Levels of Processing model 3 marksshallow processingstructural encoding intermediate processingphonemic encoding deep processingsemantic encoding 2Explain the encoding specificity principle including statedependent memory 4 marks The ease with which we can retrieve a stored memory is dependent upon how well the encoding and retrieval environments are matchedThe more similar the encoding environment is to the retrieval environment the easier it will be to retrieve the desired informationStatedependent memory extends the encoding specificity to include mood states such that the more similar the mood states are between encoding and retrieval the easier it will be to retrieve the desired information 3What two theoretical structures were added to the Short Term Memory Model to create the Working Memory Model 2 marksthe visuospatial sketchpad and the executive control system4Semantic and episodic memories are types ofmemory1 markdeclarative 5What are semantics and syntax 2 markssemantics refers to the meanings of words syntax refers to the rules of sentence structure6How do environmental influences contribute to language development 3 marks children use modeling and social learning to imitate the utterances of those around them children receive differential reinforcement for speech sounds and using the proper words 7What is a mental set 2 marksa mental set occurs when people persist in using problemssolving strategies that have worked in the past even though they may no longer be optimal or useful it is a barrier to problem solving that shows inflexibility 8Provide an explanation and an example for the confirmatory bias 3 marksthis bias occurs when we are more likely to perceive attend to and remember things that confirm our beliefs and ignore or discount disconfirming evidence eg at any given game fans of both teams will likely believe the referee was biased only against their team or police sometimes ignore evidence that might exonerate their suspect9What was the original meaning of an intelligence quotient and who proposed it 3 marksIQ allows for comparison of test scores among different people IQMental AgeChronological Age x 100 it was first proposed by Lewis Terman 10List Gardners 7 different intelligences 4 marks 12 for each 4 marks for getting them all1 musical 2 bodilykinesthetic 3 spatial 4 verbal 5 logicalmathematical 6 intrapersonal 7 social 11Describe how twin studies support the heritability of IQ 3 markstwin studies show that identical twins reared apart show a greater correlation in IQ levels than fraternal twins who are reared together identical twins reared together show only slightly higher correlations in IQ than identical twins reared apartL0301 MW 34 1In the Levels of Processing model describe and provide an example for deep processing 3 marksdeep processing or semantic encoding would include attaching meaning or symbolism to help remember a word such as a visual imagery and meaningful examples This method leads to superior retrieval of information 2Identify two types of verbal mnemonics and give an example for each4 marks any two acrostics are poems or sayings whose first letter from each word represents something to be remembered Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge represents the lines of the treble cleft acronyms are words created wherein each letter represents something to be remembered Roy G Biv is a name that represents the colors of the visible light spectrum rhymes and songs are used to help remember things such as I before E except after C3Explain the Recency effect 2 markswhen trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7or2 bits of information we often remember the last few words in the list since the last few words are still fresh in the STM store and have not yet started to decay 4Unconscious conditioned learning is also known asmemory 1 mark
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