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Test #4.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Test #4 – Psych L0101 MW 11-12 1. What three regions of the Hypothalamus have been strongly implicated in eating behavior? [3 marks] - lateral region, ventromedial region, paraventricular nucleus (PVN) 2. Explain Parental Investment Theory. [3 marks] - in any given species, the sex that makes the smaller investment in the rearing of offspring will compete for mating opportunities with the sex that makes the larger investment, and the sex that makes the larger investment will tend to be more discriminating in selecting its partners. 3. In neuropsychological terms, explain the dual processing of emotions. [4 marks] - the thalamus receives sensory input and channels the signals to two places. 1) information is rapidly sent to the amygdala where instinctive and reflexive autonomic reactions take place and 2) the information is sent more slowly to the cortex where experience, environmental cues, and physiological reactions can all be assessed before taking action. Rapid, instinctive responding to threatening stimuli may be the difference between life and death in some circumstances, whereas reasoned, logical responses are slower, but will better take into account the next appropriate behavioral response to the situation. 4. List the three phases of prenatal development and their corresponding time frames. [3 marks] - germinal period: 1 2 weeks after conception rd th - embryonic period: 3 to 8 weeks of gestation - fetal period: from 9 weeks till birth 5. Define the term “teratogens” and provide an example. [2 marks] - teratogens are environmental agents such as viruses or chemicals that can harm a developing fetus - e.g., alcohol can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, cocaine use can lead to delayed motor and emotional development, smoking can lead to SIDS, premature births, stillbirths, and miscarriages, influenza may lead to schizophrenia, etc… 6. List Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development and their corresponding time frames. [4 marks] 1. 1) sensorimotor period (birth to 2 years) 2. 2) preoperational period (2 to 7 years) 3. 3) concrete operational period (7 to 11) 4. 4) formal operational period (11 to adult) 2. What is Erikson’s second stage of personality development? [1 mark] - autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3. According to Freud, what two drives are the motivating forces for human behavior? [2 marks] - aggressive and sexual drives 4. In what stage of psychosexual development would we find penis envy? [1 mark] - phallic 5. Briefly explain Bandura’s Social Learning theory. [3 marks] - Observational or vicarious learning occurs by merely observing what others do (others are the models) and what the consequences are of those observed actions. There are two important processes, the first being acquisition which merely requires observing a behavior and its consequences and the second is acceptance or performance where the person actually performs the observed behavior 6. According to Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy, what are the two fundamental goals of all human beings who are acting rationally? [2 marks] - to stay alive and to try and be happy or satisfied 7. According to the Trait approach to personality, what are the two main assumptions about traits? [2 marks] 1. 1) traits are stable over time 2. 2) traits are stable across situations L0301 MW 3-4 1. Describe in order the first 4 levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. [2 marks] [1/2 mark each] 1. i) physiological needs – hunger, thirst, sex 2. ii) safety needs – shelter/housing, money 3. iii) love or belongingness – intimacy, family support, friends 4. iv) esteem – self-worth, self-efficacy, self-respect, respect from others 2. Explain the organizational effects of androgens on the developing fetus. [2 marks] - High levels of androgens in the 3-month-old fetus will lead to physical and personality attributes that correspond to a masculine or male gender. In the absence of these androgens, nature’s tendency is to create a female or feminine traits. 3. What are some of the gender differences found in patterns of sexual activity and how do evolutionary psychologists explain them? [3 marks] - males generally show a greater interest in sex, initiate sex more often, have more sexual partners, and engage in more sex with partners they barely know, than women - because males can have thousands of children, it is in their best interest for reproductive success to have as many partners as possible, whereas females are very limited in the number of children they can have, thus, they must be very selective about who they mate with. 4. Identify and give an example of the 3 components of emotions. [3 marks] - physiological arousal, e.g., increased heart rate, galvanic skin response, autonomic activity, etc… - subjective experience, e.g., fear of pain, or death, or anticipation of pleasure, etc… - behavioral expression, e.g., scream, cry, laugh, make a facial expression, etc… 5. Explain the cross-sectional method of study and state when it is useful and when it is not useful. [3 marks] - the cross-sectional method compares groups of different ages at the same time - it is useful for assessing age differences - it is not useful for assessing age changes 6. 6. List the 3 types of infant-caregiver attachment discussed in the lectures. [3 marks] - 1) secure 2) anxious-ambivalent 3) avoidant 7. According to Piaget, define “conservation” and state the stage of cognitive development where children learn this ability. [2 marks] - Conservation is the understanding that the basic properties of an object are constant even if the object changes shape - Piaget believed that children mastered conservation in the concrete operational period 8. In what stage of Kohlberg’s moral development would we find right and wrong determined by abstract ethical principles of equality and justice? [1 mark] - post conventional 9. What is Erikson’s fifth stage of personality development? [1 mark] - identity vs. confusion 10. Define and provide an example for the following defense mechanisms: Projection, Reaction Formation, and Displacement. [3 marks] - Projection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to others e.g., you believe that your friend is mad at you when really it is you who are mad at your friend Reaction Formation: a person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse e.g., a person attracted to the same sex may express open hostility to homosexuals - Displacement: diverting emotional reactions from their original source to a substitute target e.g., a man who is mad at his boss comes home and yells at his wife 11. According to Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy, list four positive and four negative emotions that would be considered appropriate. [4 marks] [1/2 mark each] Positive: pleasure, joy, love, social interest] Negative: sorrow, regret, frustration, displeasure 12. According to Eysenck, what are the three main traits of personality? [3 marks] - extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism L0201 TR 1-2 1. How do the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin affect the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus with regards to eating behavior? [2 marks] - when norepinephrine is found in the PVN an individual is more likely to increase their consumption of carbohydrates, whereas infusion of serotonin in the PVN will lead to decreased carbohydrate consumption. 2. What is the evolutionary explanation for gender differences in mate preferences? [4 marks] - throughout evolution men have looked for women with good reproductive potential and thus have traditionally valued youthfulness (allowing for more reproductive years) and attractiveness (which is a sign of health and fertility) in their partners, whereas women have looked for mates that could provide material resources and protect the family. Thus, women traditionally place more emphasis on intelligence, income and status in mate selection. 3. List the 6 basic emotional states discussed in class. [3 marks] [1/2 mark each] - anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise 4. Positive emotions are related most strongly to activation of _______________ systems, whereas negative emotions are most strongly related to activation of ________________________ systems. [2 marks] - dopamine, norepinephrine 5. Explain the concept of critical periods and provide an example. [4 marks] - the brain is set to acquire a function during a limited period of time, if key experiences do not occur during a critical time period, the function may not develop normally or at all. - the brain is also more vulnerable to certain teratogens (environmental stimuli) at some critical periods as opposed to other times where exposure is not as serious. - e.g., Genie was isolated till age 13 and thus never fully developed language skills - e.g., measles can cause mental retardation if contracted during certain fetal periods 6. Identify and define the two laws of infant motor development. [2 marks] - - cephalocaudal development means infants develop from the head down - - proximodistal development means infants develop from the center outward 7. According to Piaget, define “object permanence” and state the stage of cognitive development where it is first found. [2 marks] - object permanence refers to the realization that an object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen - according to Piaget it develops at the end of the sensorimotor period 8. In what stage of Kohlberg’s moral development do we find right and wrong being determined by what is punished? [1 mark] - preconventional stage 9. What are Erikson’s third and seventh stages of personality development? [2 marks] - - initiative vs. guilt - - generativity vs. self-absorbtion 10. Identify and describe Freud’s three structures of personality. [3 marks] - Id: based on the pleasure principle, unconscious desires, wishes, and instincts - Ego: based on the reality principle, struggles to satisfy Id and Superego and deal with the reality of the world - Superego: based on the morality principle, keeps Id in check and tries to establish a sense of right and wrong based on society, family, and internal morals . 11. Explain the concept of “reciprocal determinism”. [2 marks] - internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all interact and influence one another in a person’s subjective experience of the world. 12. According to Rogers’ Person-Centered approach to personality, identify and describe the three types of “selves” that humans possess. [3 marks] 1. 1) True-self: the core aspect of who we really are 2. 2) False-self: the self that is shown to others and created by distortions from interpersonal experiences 3. 3) Ideal-self: what the person would like to be L6001 TR 5-6 1. Identify and describe the last stage of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. [3 marks] - Self-actualization is the final stage. It represents a stage where all other stages are currently being fulfilled and a person is free to search for the truth of who they really are, or their authentic self. A self-actualized person enjoys genuine intrinsic liking of their actions and lifestyle and contributes to the world in a way that earns them a living, respect from others, and self-respect. 2. Explain the effects of stimulation and lesioning in both the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus. [2 marks] [1/2 mark each] - stimulation of the lateral region induces eating, whereas lesions produce starvation - stimulation of the ventricular region inhibits eating, whereas lesions induce overeating 3. How do evolutionary psychologists explain gender differences in patterns of jealousy? [2 marks] - men are more jealousy if their mate has a one-time sexual encounter with a stranger than a non-sexual, long term emotional relationship with a member of the opposite sex, since only the sexual encounter is a threat to their reproductive success, whereas women show the opposite pattern since the emotional affair is more of a threat to resources than a brief sexual affair. 4. Explain Schachter and Singer’s Two-Factor Theory of emotion. [3 marks] - emotions are created by our cognitive appraisal of 1) our autonomic response to stimuli in the environment and 2) the situational cues apparent in the environment. In other words, we feel a physiological reaction and then determine what emotion we are feeling by looking to the environment for clues. 5. List 3 common methodologies used in developmental research. [3 marks] - cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies, sequential studies 6. Explain Piaget’s concepts of assimilation and accommodation. [2 marks] - Assimilation involves interpreting new information in light of an old or existing schema - Accomodation is the process by which old schemas are modified to fit new situations and information 7. According to Piaget, define “egocentrism” and state the stage of cognitive development where it can be found. [2 marks] - Egocentrism refers to a cognitive view in which a child understands the world to have only their view and they have difficulty understanding the views of others - according to Piaget this is found in the preoperational period 8. What are the two types of moral orientations found at Kohlberg’s conventional stage of moral development? [2 marks] - the good boy/good girl orientation, and the authority orientation 9. What is Erikson’s seventh stage of personality development? [1 mark] - generativity vs. self-absorbtion 10. Define and provide an example for the following defense mechanisms: Projection, Reaction Formation, and Displacement. [3 marks] - Projection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to others e.g., you believe that your friend is mad at you when really it is you who are mad at your friend - Sublimation: converting an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable activity e.g., an urge to hit your boyfriend is channeled into a kickboxing workout - Displacement: diverting emotional reactions from their original source to a substitute target e.g., a man who is mad at his boss comes home and yells at his wife 11. According to Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy, list three positive and five negative emotions that would be considered inappropriate. [4 marks] [1/2 mark each] Positive: grandiosity, rage, mania Negative: depression, anxiety, despair, self-pity, feelings of worthlessness 12. List the Big Five factors of personality traits. [3 marks] [1/2 mark each and ½ mark for getting all 5] - - Openness to experience - - Conscientiousness - - Extroversion - - Agreeableness - - Neuroticism ____ 1) For which of the following is the world essentially a stage on which one must act? A. the sensation seeker B. the person with an internal locus of control C. the person high in self-monitoring D. the self-actualizing person ____ 2) Which of the following terms is most likely to be used by a homosexual woman to describe her sexual orientation? A. gay B. lesbian C. bisexual D. straight ____ 3) The recent discover of a previously undetected hormone, called __________, has shed new light on the hormonal regulation of hunger. A. leptin B. glucotin C. norepinephrine D. neuropeptide Y ____ 4) Which of the following best describes the refractory period? A. the time between orgasms in multiorgasmic women B. a time following female orgasm during which females are largely unresponsive to further stimulation C. a time following male orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation D. the time between initiation of intercourse and orgasm ____ 5) Which of the following is not one of the "big five" personality traits? A. neuroticism B. extraversion C. locus of control D. openness to experience ____ 6) Relative to older age groups, adolescents A. complete suicide more often B. complete suicide just as often C. attempt suicide more often D. attempt suicide less often ____ 7) In explaining behavior, social learning theorist Walter Mischel is most interested in the influence of A. personality traits B. unconscious forces C. the situation D. instincts ____ 8) The psychodynamic theories of personality have been criticized for which of the following? A. sexism B. lack of testability C. inadequate supportive evidence D. all of these reasons ____ 9) Which of the following statements related to Cannon's findings on hunger is true? A. There is a correlation between stomach contractions and feelings of hunger. B. People whose stomach has been surgically removed still experience hunger. C. Stomach contractions do not cause hunger. D. All of these statements are true. ____ 10) Which of the following statement regarding the need for achievement is the most accurate? A. The need for achievement is highly variable in a given person throughout his/her lifetime. B. Achievement motive is generally determined by situational factors. C. The need for achievement is a fairly stable aspect of one's personality. D. There is a strong genetic component in the need for achievement. ____ 11) The set point for body weight refers to the A. lowest possible weight at which the person can survive B. highest weight the person can attain by unrestricted eating C. person's current weight D. person's natural point of stability in body weight ____ 12) Pierre is telling you about a case study that he read for his Cultural Geography class. It focused on a country which, for the past 30 years, has experienced high levels of civil unrest, severe drought, and famine. Based on Belsky's research into the evolutionary aspects of attachment, you might expect that in this country you would find A. a high number of insecure attachments in the children and relatively unstable romantic relations in the adults B. a high number of insecure attachments in the children but relatively stable romantic relations in the adults C. a high number of secure attachments in the children but relatively unstable romantic relations in the adults D. a high number of secure attachments in the children and relatively stable romantic relations in the adults ____ 13) A child is shown a candy box. When asked what he thinks is in it, he says, "Candy." He is then shown that the candy box in fact contains crayons. He is then asked what he thinks another child will say when confronted with the same closed box. He says that he thinks the next child will say, "Crayons." What would be the best guess about the age of the child? A. 3 years B. 5 years C. 6 years D. 7 years ____ 14) Research on rape has found that about __________ percent of rapes are committed by someone who is known by the victim. A. 20 B. 40 C. 60 D. 90 ____ 15) Imagine a neighborhood in which a hurricane has caused extensive flooding. Many of the residents have had their homes damaged or destroyed. At the time, however, the material loss is unimportant as the residents think only of escaping the flood. Maslow would say this is because the residents' __________ needs are threatened. A. physiological B. safety and security C. esteem D. self-actualization ____ 16) Thomas and Chess refer to a child who tends to be glum, erratic in sleep and eating, and resistant to change as A. an easy child B. a slow-to-warm-up child C. a mixed temperament child D. a difficult child ____ 17) As an adult, going back to an earlier way of gratifying needs defines A. repression B. fixation C. regression D. reaction formation ____ 18) Of the countries listed below, which country has the lowest infant mortality rate? A. Sweden B. Great Britain C. United States D. Canada ____ 19) Malcolm is reading a mystery novel, and as the action builds he finds he is breathing more quickly than usual, and he feels like his stomach is tied in knots. These reactions are part of the A. objective component in Malcolm's emotional experience B. physiological component in Malcolm's emotional experience C. cognitive component in Malcolm's emotional experience D. behavioral component in Malcolm's emotional experience ____ 20) A person who is suspicious, aloof, guarded, worrisome, and overly sensitive is likely to score high on which of the following clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)? A. hysteria B. paranoia C. depression D. social introversion ____ 21) According to Freud, the unconscious can reveal itself through A. dreams B. slips of the tongue C. psychoanalysis D. all of the above ____ 22) Imagine that an individual has taken medication that has lowered his or her overall level of autonomic arousal. If this person reports less intense emotional experiences it would provide some support for A. the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion B. the common-sense view of emotion C. the facial feedback hypothesis D. the James-Lange theory of emotion ____ 23) Reasons that take support away from a conclusion are called A. fallacies B. premises C. assumptions D. counterarguments ____ 24) For children in which Piagetian stage might we be correct with the old expression "Out of sight is out of mind"? A. concrete operational B. preoperational C. sensorimotor D. formal operations ____ 25) Research on the heritability of personality shows that __________ appears to have a surprisingly small impact on personality. A. shared family environment B. heredity C. unique experiences D. unconscious motivation ____ 26) The hierarchy of traits is to Maslow's theory of personality as __________ is/are to Freud's theory. A. the self-concept B. the id, ego, and superego C. the inferiority complex D. reward and punishment ____ 27) The embryonic stage of prenatal development refers to A. the formation of a zygote B. the implantation of the fertilized egg into the uterine wall C. the second through eighth weeks of prenatal development D. the last seven months of the pregnancy ____ 28) One recent trend in marriage in this country is A. for marriage to occur at younger ages B. for most first marriages to occur in the "teen" years C. to increasingly postpone marriage into the late 20s or beyond D. to remain single throughout life ____ 29) Gender roles tend to be A. based on biological capabilities B. a natural outgrowth of biological gender differences C. based on society's prescriptions of what is proper for each sex D. biology first and social prescription second ____ 30) In the 1960s, even though all her friends tried recreational drugs, Maggie refused to experiment with drugs because she was afraid she would get caught and end up in jail. Maggie's reasons for not experimenting with drugs reflect A. conventional moral reasoning B. postconventional moral reasoning C. preconventional moral reasoning D. authoritarian moral reasoning 4mw11 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: C REF: 515 2) ANS: B REF: 403 Correct = 96% 3) ANS: A REF: 390 4) ANS: C REF: 408 5) ANS: C REF: 486 6) ANS: C REF: 460 7) ANS: C REF: 502 8) ANS: D REF: 498 9) ANS: D REF: 389 Correct = 67% 10) ANS: C REF: 410 11) ANS: D REF: 394 Correct = 98% 12) ANS: D REF: 445 13) ANS: A REF: 452 14) ANS: D REF: 397 15) ANS: B REF: 506 16) ANS: D REF: 440 Correct = 78% 17) ANS: C REF: 492 Correct = 83% 18) ANS: A REF: 436 Correct = 59% 19) ANS: B REF: 414 20) ANS: B REF: 519 21) ANS: D REF: 489 Correct = 98% 22) ANS: D REF: 418 23) ANS: D REF: 426 24) ANS: C REF: 448 Correct = 72% 25) ANS: A REF: 512 26) ANS: B 27) ANS: C REF: 433 Correct = 69% 28) ANS: C REF: 464 Correct = 90% 29) ANS: C REF: 478 Correct = 84% 30) ANS: C REF: 454 ____ 1) People who score high in __________ are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, and assertive. A. neuroticism B. extraversion C. conscientiousness D. openness to experience ____ 2) The greatest inconsistency between who a person is and the impression he or she creates is likely to be found in a A. sensation seeker B. high self-monitor C. self-actualizer D. person with a realistic self-concept ____ 3) Which of the following is not one of the levels of awareness proposed by Freud? A. conscious B. unconscious C. preconscious D. collective unconscious ____ 4) Which of the following is not a common criticism of psychodynamic theories of personality? A. lack of testability B. sex bias against women C. inadequate supportive evidence D. over-emphasis on the importance of early childhood experiences ____ 5) Animals that have lesions in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus A. go for days without sleep B. lose all interest in sex C. overeat and become obese D. ignore food and often starve ____ 6) Who developed a stage theory of moral development? A. Piaget B. Kohlberg C. Gould D. Bowlby ____ 7) Candice has just joined a sorority as a means of bolstering her self-esteem. Her behavior reflects the use of __________ as a defense mechanism. A. identification B. immersion C. regression D. projection ____ 8) The basic idea behind the set-point theory of body weight is that A. the body monitors fat stores and tries to keep them stable B. the body monitors carbohydrate stores and tries to keep them stable C. the body monitors protein levels and tries to keep them stable D. glucostats are critical in weight control ____ 9) When Teresa's mother hides her favorite doll under a blanket, Teresa acts as if it no longer exists, and she makes no attempt to look for it. Based on this information, you can infer that Teresa is in Piaget's A. sensorimotor period of cognitive development B. formal period of cognitive development C. concrete period of cognitive development D. preoperational period of cognitive development ____ 10) As Danica saw the headlights coming directly at her through the fog on the
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