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Test #5.doc

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Psychology
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PSY100Y5
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Dax Urbszat

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Test #5 PSY100 – Test 5 L0101 MW 11-12 1. Explain three positive factors that support having diagnostic categories or giving patients a diagnosis. [3 marks] 1) it facilitates communication among practitioners and researchers (standardization) 2) it is the key to further knowledge in terms of treatment and prevention 3) it allows for psychoeducation leading to more personal knowledge for sufferers of mental disorders as well as reducing feelings of isolation and uncontrollability 2. What is a panic attack? When is it adaptive and when is it maladaptive? [4 marks] - A panic attack is a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which at least 4 panic symptoms (heart racing, sweating, shaking, choking, nausea, dizziness, etc…) develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes. Panic reactions are adaptive when there is some present danger in the environment that you must confront, however they are maladaptive when they occur in absence of some threatening stimuli, i.e., they occur out of the blue, or are unexpected or uncued. 3. Give examples of some common phobias and provide an explanation for why they are so much more prevalent than other phobias. [3 marks] - common phobias include fear of snakes, spiders, dogs, heights, water, blood These phobias are likely more common due to Biological Preparedness or a genetic predisposition to fear certain stimuli over others. Most of the common phobias involve things that were traditionally very deadly to our ancestors and thus it was evolutionarily adaptive to have a strong fear response for these ancient dangers. 4. What is the difference between Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders? [2 marks] - Bipolar I is one or more Manic or Mixed episodes, usually accompanied by Depressive episodes, whereas, Bipolar II is Depressive episodes accompanied by hypomania 5. What is Somatization Disorder? [2 marks] - a history of many physical complaints that result in treatment being sought that cannot be explained by a medical condition and are not intentionally produced 6. What are the two types of Eating Disorders recognized by the DSM-IV? [2 marks] - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa 7. What are the four classification categories of Schizophrenia? [2 marks] - Paranoid, Catatonic, Disorganized, and Undifferentiated 8. List three types of Insight-Oriented therapy. [3 marks] - Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Gestalt, Emotion Focused, or Process Experiential [any three] 9. What are the three main categories of psychopharmacological drugs? [3 marks] - Anti-Depressant, Anti-Anxiety, and Anti-Psychotic 10. List six advantages of group therapy. [3 marks] [any six for 1/2 mark each] 1) Efficiency 2) Universality 3) Empathy 4) Interaction 5) Acceptance 6) Altruism 7) Modeling 8) Pressure 9) Practice 10) Reality Testing 11) Transference 11. Describe three warning signs that signal a risk for suicide. [3 marks] [any three, one mark each] 1. 1) withdrawal from family and friends (social isolation) 2. 2) changes in eating and sleeping patterns 3. 3) writing or talking a lot about death 4. 4) telling statements like “the world would be better off without me”, or “I would be better off dead”, or “no one would miss me if I were dead” 5. 5) periods of agitation followed by calm resignation 6. 6) giving away valued possessions 7. 7) taking care of unfinished business like debts and favours owed L0301 MW 3-4 1. List the areas covered by each of the 5 axes of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fourth edition (DSM-IV) [5 marks] Axis I all mental disorders (except) Axis II personality disorders and mental retardation Axis III physical/medical disorders Axis IV psychosocial and environmental problems Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (1-100) 2. How does Panic Disorder contribute to the development of Agoraphobia? [3 marks] - recurrent panic attacks cause distress associated with high risk places like malls, restaurants, theatres, and other public places. As the fear of having a panic attack increases a person may become more and more anxious about going out to public places till eventually the person does not want to go out at all for fear of having a panic attack in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarrassing. 3. What is Social Phobia and what fear is thought to be at the root of the disorder? [3 marks] - social phobia is a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations, particularly situations that involve exposure to unfamiliar people or to possible evaluation by others. - the underlying fear is thought to be a fear that one will do something stupid or humiliating and that others will negatively evaluate the person leading to rejection, loneliness and unhappiness. 4. 4. What are the four types of Mood Episodes found in Mood Disorders? [2 marks] - Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Hypomanic Episode, Mixed Episode 5. What is Hypochondriasis? [2 marks] - - a preoccupation with the belief that one has a serious disease despite medical evaluation and assurance to the contrary, and the person is not delusional 6. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – IV, what are the two types of Anorexia Nervosa? [2 marks] - Restricting Type and Binge-Purging Type 7. Regarding the mental disorder Schizophrenia, what type of symptoms are delusions and hallucinations? [1 mark] - positive symptoms 8. List three techniques in Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy that are necessary for a good therapeutic climate. [3 marks] - Genuineness, Unconditional Positive Regard, and Empathy 9. List three types of anti-depressant medication. [3 marks] - - Tricyclic anti-depressants - - Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) inhibitors - - Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors 10. Describe three factors that are common to all types of psychotherapy. [3 marks] [any three, one mark each] - - development of a strong therapeutic alliance or relationship between therapist and patient/client - - providing a rationale for why the client is suffering and why these techniques help alleviate suffering - - provide an opportunity for catharsis or venting or expressing emotions in a safe environment - - acquisition and practice of new behaviors and ways to respond to the world - - beneficial therapist qualities (objective, confident, professional) - - positive expectations and hope 11. 11. List three predisposing conditions (diatheses) that can be risk factors for suicide. [3 marks] [any three, one mark each] - - having a psychological disorder - - substance abuse - - family history of suicide - - family breakdown - - societal breakdown - - past suicide attempts L0201 TR 1-2 1. List and explain 4 reasons why a diagnosis can be a negative thing. [4 marks] 1) a diagnosis is often unreliable in that two doctors may each give the same person a different diagnosis 2) there are many questions about the validity of many diagnostic categories as some diagnoses are vague and arbitrary as well as many categories have a lot of overlap 3) a diagnosis can overlook the uniqueness of the person and the doctor may start to treat the disorder, rather than the actual person suffering from the disorder 4) there is still a great deal of stimgatization involved in mental illness and having a diagnostic label can be a source of shame and humiliation (or perceived as such) 2. What are the important differences between Blood-Injection-Injury phobias and other specific phobias? [3 marks] - most phobias have a severe anxiety or panic reaction when confronting the feared stimuli, however, BIJ phobias have the opposite physiological reaction where the heart rate and blood pressure decrease (rather than increase) and the phobic reaction is one of fainting. With most phobias treatment includes relaxation training, however, with BIJ phobias relaxation training is counterproductive, so techniques are used that increase heart rate and blood pressure when creating new learning associations. 3. With regards to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, define Obsessions and Compulsions and provide and example for each. [4 marks] Obsessions: persistent and intrusive thoughts, impulses, and images that are inappropriate and cause marked distress, e.g., I will get cancer, Mom will be in a car crash, something bad is going to happen Compulsions: repetitive behaviors or mental acts often performed to prevent or reduce anxiety and distress, but not to provide pleasure or gratification, e.g., constant hand washing, ritual checking, counting or having to perform rituals a certain number of times 4. What are the two types of Unipolar Mood Disorders? [2 marks] - Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthymic Disorder 5. What is Conversion Disorder? [2 marks] - one or more symptoms or deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function that suggest a neurological or general medical condition, although no medical condition is present and the symptoms are not intentionally produced. 6. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – IV, what are the two types of Bulimia Nervosa? [2 marks] - Purging Type and Non-Purging Type 7. What symptom of Schizophrenia would include hearing voices? [1 mark] - Hallucinations 8. Which neurotransmitter system is most strongly implicated in the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia and what pharmacological evidence is used to support this theory? [3 marks] - the positive symptoms of schizophrenia are believed to be caused by excess dopamine activity in the brain. Evidence for this comes from the fact that drugs such as amphetamines release dopamine from terminals in the brain and too much amphetamine exposure can induce a psychotic state (or behaviors similar to positive symptoms of schizophrenia) in humans 9. List three Psychodynamic techniques used to achieve insight into unconscious conflicts. [3 marks] - - Free Association, Interpretation (of thoughts, feelings, and dreams), and Analysis of Transference 10. Describe the four ways that psychotropic drugs can alter behavior. [4 marks] 1. 1) some facilitate the release of specific neurotransmitters 2. 2) some block the reuptake of specific neurotransmitters 3. 3) some interact with post-synaptic receptors 4. 4) some act within the neuron cells 2. Explain “Eclecticism” with regards to the treatment of psychological disorders. [2 marks] - - involves using different treatments for different clients with different problems - - or using a reasonable combination or various treatments for the same client (technical eclecticism) L6001 TR 5-6 1. What is the difference between fear and anxiety? [3 marks] - fear is a present-oriented emotional alarm reaction to danger that is immediately present. It manifests itself in the emergency “fight or flight” reaction that readies the individual for immediate action. Anxiety is a negative mood state that focuses on future problems and the feeling that one cannot predict or control upcoming events. It is not based on present danger . 2. List the 5 different categories of Specific Phobias and provide an example for each. [5 marks] 1. 1) Animal – e.g., fear of spiders, snakes, dogs, etc… 2. 2) Natural environment – e.g., heights, water, etc… 3. 3) Blood-injection-injury Type – e.g., faint from a needle, or seeing blood 4. 4) Situational – e.g., planes, elevators, driving, etc… 5. 5) Other – e.g., choking, vomiting, etc… . 2. What is Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia? [4 marks] - Panic disorder is recurrent, unexpected panic attacks along with one month of concern about additional attacks or worry about the implications of the attacks or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks. Agoraphobia is extreme anxiety about being in places from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing in the event of a panic attack leading to avoidance of these situations and often becoming housebound 3. What is Dysthymic Disorder? [2 marks] - a less severe form of Major Depressive Disorder where the symptoms are milder but remain unchanged over long periods of time (at least 2 years) 4. What is Body Dysmorphic Disorder? [2 marks] - a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance, or if a slight physical anomaly is present, the concern is excessive and unrealistically exaggerated - the disorder causes significant distress and/or impairment to functioning 5. List two genetic predisposing factors that may contribute to an Eating Disorder. [2 marks] [any two, one mark each] - - early maturation - - obesity - - family history of disordered eating, alcohol problems, or depression 6. List two types of Action-Oriented psychotherapy. [2 marks] - Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, and Rational-Emotive Therapy 7. Describe the ABC’s of Rational Emotive Therapy using a specific example. [4 marks] A = activating event: getting a bad mark on a test B = belief: I am stupid, I am a failure, etc… C = consequences (emotional): sadness, feelings of inferiority, hopelessness, helplessness, etc… D = disputing beliefs: everyone gets some bad marks, I am good at other things, I just need to study harder, I can learn from my mistakes, etc… 8. Describe three factors that are common to all types of psychotherapy. [3 marks] [any three, one mark each] - - development of a strong therapeutic alliance or relationship between therapist and patient/client - - providing a rationale for why the client is suffering and why these techniques help alleviate suffering - - provide an opportunity for catharsis or venting or expressing emotions in a safe environment - - acquisition and practice of new behaviors and ways to respond to the world - - beneficial therapist qualities (objective, confident, professional) - - positive expectations and hope 9. List three stressors that can be risk factors for suicide. [3 marks] [any three, one mark each] - - Changes in relationships, academics/work, or financial situation - - Life event that is shameful or humiliating - - Significant loss (friend, loved one, divorce) - - Homosexuality - - Recent suicide by friend or loved one, or someone famous ____ 1) A physical ailment that results from psychological factors without any accompanying physical basis is referred to as A. a somatoform disorder B. a psychosomatic illness C. an anxiety disorder D. malingering ____ 2) The subtype of schizophrenia marked by delusions of persecution and grandeur is A. hebephrenic B. disorganized C. catatonic D. paranoid ____ 3) An unwanted thought that repeatedly intrudes upon an individual's consciousness is called A. a delusion B. an obsession C. a compulsion D. a hallucination ____ 4) Inflated self-esteem, distractibility, heightened emotionality, and grandiose planning are all symptoms associated with A. fugue states B. bipolar disorders C. dissociative disorders D. obsessive-compulsive disorders ____ 5) Killian lets her husband keep all the financial records for the family, and she expects him to make all the decisions that affect the family. She refuses to make any decisions on her own, and if anything unexpected occurs she calls her husband at work to ask for his advice. If Killian has a personality disorder, her symptoms are most consistent with those associated with disorders in A. the anxious/fearful cluster B. the odd/eccentric cluster C. the dramatic/impulsive cluster D. the neurotic/dissociative cluster ____ 6) Thorazine is classed as A. an antianxiety drug B. an antipsychotic drug C. an antidepressant drug D. a mood-altering drug ____ 7) Researchers have found that in schizophrenic patients, as compared to normal control subjects, the thalamus is: A. larger, and shows more metabolic activity B. smaller, but shows more metabolic activity C. larger, but shows less metabolic activity D. smaller, and shows less metabolic activity ____ 8) If you feel that your therapy isn't progressing, you should A. get a new therapist immediately B. assume you are not a good candidate for therapy, and drop the idea C. first consider the possibility of your own resistance to therapy D. first question your therapist's competence ____ 9) Which of the following neurotransmitters has been implicated in mood disorders? A. GABA B. serotonin C. dopamine D. endorphins ____ 10) The two most common problems among those who seek psychotherapy are A. marital conflicts and a sense of emptiness B. loneliness and boredom C. low self-esteem and irrational thinking D. anxiety and depression ____ 11) Of the following, which is not a closely related pair of terms? A. psychoanalysis and free association B. client-centered therapy and clarification C. behavior therapy and systematic desensitization D. biomedical therapy and aversion therapy ____ 12) Therapy that involves pairing a stimulus that leads to an undesirable behavior with an unconditioned stimulus that is unpleasant is A. biofeedback training B. systematic desensitization C. reverse countertransference D. aversion therapy ____ 13) Behavior that does not coincide with cultural norms may be considered to be A. deviant B. maladaptive C. personally distressing D. insane ____ 14) In direct comparisons of the effectiveness of behavior therapy and insight therapy A. the differences are usually small, but tend to favor behavior therapy B. the differences are usually small, but tend to favor insight therapy C. behavior therapy tends to be significantly more effective D. insight therapy tends to be significantly more effective ____ 15) DSM-IV uses five "axes" to describe a person's problem. The actual diagnosis of a disorder is made on A. Axis I only B. Axis II only C. Axis I and II D. Axis V ____ 16) You are watching a television documentary that shows a patient who is undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). If this documentary is depicting psychotherapy in the 1990s, you should conclude that A. the patient is being treated for severe depression that has not responded to medication B. the patient is being treated for severe schizophrenia that has not responded to medication C. the documentary is inaccurate because electroconvulsive shock therapy hasn't been used since the 1970s D. the documentary is an "undercover expose," and the doctor administrating the treatment is in violation of current ethical guidelines ____ 17) Suggestions for improving mental health services for American minority groups have included all of the following except A. recruitment and training of more ethnic minority therapists B. pretherapy education programs for minority clients to familiarize them with the process of therapy C. the provision of free therapeutic services for all ethnic clients D. giving therapists special training in cultural sensitivity ____ 18) In an effort to make the criteria of mental illness less value-laden, evolutionary psychologists have proposed that mental disorders ought to be viewed as A. harmful evolutionary dysfunctions B. diseases that can be treated and possibly cured C. the manifestation of unconscious instincts and drives D. culturally maladaptive behaviors learned through social interactions ____ 19) Taken as a whole, the results from studies investigating mental illness among the homeless suggest that A. the homeless population is made up primarily of elderly male alcoholics B. many of the homeless suffer from some form of psychological disorder C. most of the homeless have family or friends they could go to, if they chose D. deinstitutionalization has been largely successful in getting mental patients off the streets ____ 20) Dr. Benz always tries to be honest with her clients, and she never becomes defensive, even if the clients ridicule her feedback or her methods of therapy. According to Carl Rogers, Dr. Benz is displaying the quality of A. empathy in dealing with her clients B. genuineness in dealing with her clients C. unconditional positive regard in dealing with her clients D. validity in dealing with her clients ____ 21) Fiona has been diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. Based on the physical symptoms listed in your text, you should expect that Fiona will show evidence of A. amenorrhea and low blood pressure B. dental problems and cardiac arrhythmias C. cardiac arrhythmias and osteoporosis D. dental problems and elevated blood pressure ____ 22) The disorder marked by striking motor disturbances ranging from rigidity to random motor activity and incoherence is termed A. catatonic schizophrenia B. multiple personality C. dissociative disorder D. paranoid schizophrenia ____ 23) Jack always complains of being sick. He is convinced he is dying. His physicians have all told him that there is nothing wrong with him and he should live well into his 80s. Jack does not believe the physicians and continues to search for a doctor who will confirm that he is sick. Jack's behavior is most consistent with the symptoms of A. an anxiety disorder B. a somatoform disorder C. a dissociative disorder D. a schizophrenic disorder ____ 24) Tardive dyskinesia A. is a neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements B. is a serious side effect of long-term use of antidepressant drugs C. can be cured with the same medication used to treat Parkinson's disease D. can emerge after long-term use of lithium ____ 25) The recovery from a disorder without formal treatment is referred to as A. a placebo effect B. reified recovery C. spontaneous remission D. countertransference ____ 26) Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder than seems to occur only in Western cultures. The discovery of culture-bound disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, lends support to A. the relativistic view of psychological disorders B. the pancultural view of psychological disorders C. the stress-vulnerability model of psychological disorders D. the idiosyncratic view of psychological disorders ____ 27) Free association and dream analysis were held to be major methods to discover the makeup of A. the unconscious B. the conscious C. irrational thoughts D. maladaptive behaviors ____ 28) The use of the anxiety hierarchy in systematic desensitization allows for the A. gradual approach to the feared object B. direct confrontation with the feared object C. use of real objects instead of imagination D. transfer of treatment to real-life situations ____ 29) Tina has been extremely hyperactive for the past week, and she has been getting by with only 3 hours of sleep each night. Her thoughts seem to be racing out of control and she is convinced that the novel she started last week will become a best seller and win a Pulitzer Prize, even though she has never had any of her writing published in the past. Tina's symptoms suggest that she is currently experiencing A. dysthymic disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. a manic episode D. dissociative fugue ____ 30) Which of the following behavior therapy techniques would most likely be used to treat a fear of flying? A. systematic desensitization B. aversive conditioning C. modeling D. biofeedback 5mw11 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: A REF: 582 2) ANS: D REF: 593 Correct = 79% 3) ANS: B REF: 578 4) ANS: B REF: 588 5) ANS: A REF: 598 6) ANS: B REF: 631 7) ANS: D REF: 596 Correct = 75% 8) ANS: C REF: 649 9) ANS: B REF: 589 10) ANS: D REF: 616 Correct = 89% 11) ANS: D 12) ANS: D REF: 628 13) ANS: A REF: 570 Correct = 79% 14) ANS: A REF: 630 Correct = 43% 15) ANS: C REF: 575 Correct = 70% 16) ANS: A REF: 634 17) ANS: C REF: 642 Correct = 36% 18) ANS: A REF: 571 19) ANS: B REF: 644 20) ANS: B REF: 622 21) ANS: B REF: 607 22) ANS: A REF: 593 23) ANS: B REF: 583 24) ANS: A REF: 632 25) ANS: C REF: 625 26) ANS: A REF: 604 27) ANS: A REF: 620 28) ANS: A REF: 627 Correct = 91% 29) ANS: C REF: 588 30) ANS: A REF: 627 ____ 1) The prevalence estimates of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are roughly comparable across diverse cultures. This finding lends support to A. the relativistic view of psychological disorders B. the stress-vulnerability model of psychological disorders C. the idiosyncratic view of psychological disorders D. the pancultural view of psychological disorders ____ 2) A court declares that because of a mental illness, an individual is not responsible for his criminal actions. The individual is A. insane B. psychopathic C. psychotic D. schizophrenic ____ 3) Wendy works at Opydyne Corporation. At the last business executive meeting she showed up in pajamas and slippers. When her coworkers commented on the inappropriateness of her outfit, Wendy did not seem the least bit disturbed or embarrassed by their comments. In this example, Wendy's style of dressing would most likely be considered A. maladaptive B. personally distressing C. delusional D. culturally deviant ____ 4) The idea that you can't be profoundly relaxed and fearful at the same time is basic to A. behavior modification B. systematic desensitization C. successive goal approximations D. psychodynamic activation ____ 5) The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by A. low levels of expressed in emotion in the family of the schizophrenic patient B. disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth C. genetic factors that interact with environmental stressors during infancy D. abnormal levels of dopamine and serotonin in the cerebral cortex ____ 6) Jose has a psychological disorder, and his doctor has prescribed a drug that affects both the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in Jose's nervous system. Based on this information, it is most likely that Jose is being treated for A. an anxiety disorder B. a schizophrenic disorder C. a somatoform disorder D. depression ____ 7) Taken as a whole, the results from studies investigating mental illness among the homeless indicate that, compared to the non-homeless, homeless persons are A. less likely to suffer from mental health problems or substance abuse problems B. equally likely to suffer from mental health problems C. more likely to suffer from mental health problems D. less likely to suffer from mental health problems, but more likely to exhibit substance abuse problems ____ 8) Hiding information or things from your therapist can be evidence for A. displacement B. resistance to therapy C. transference D. counterconditioning ____ 9) Behavior therapies appear to be particularly effective in the treatment of A. major depression B. antisocial personality disorder C. phobias D. multiple-personality disorders ____ 10) Which of the following was not a problem with state mental hospitals in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s? A. The hospitals were underfunded. B. The hospitals were overstaffed. C. The hospital staff was undertrained. D. The hospitals were overcrowded. ____ 11) Erick is impulsive and unpredictable. His moods seem to be constantly changing and all his interpersonal relationships seem to be very unstable. If Erick has a personality disorder, his symptoms are most consistent with those associated with disorders in A. the dramatic/impulsive cluster B. the odd/eccentric cluster C. the anxious/fearful cluster D. the neurotic/dissociative cluster ____ 12) A two-category scheme for classification of schizophrenia has been suggested as an alternative to the older four categories. These two categories are based on A. presence or absence of delusions B. predominance of positive or negative symptoms C. early or late age of onset D. slow or fast developing symptoms ____ 13) Jack thinks constantly about dirt and germs. He washes his hands hundreds of times a day. Jack is most likely suffering from A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. hypochondriasis C. phobic disorder D. somatization disorder ____ 14) Which of the following therapies are mainly intended to eliminate symptoms rather than alter personality? A. behavior and drug therapies B. psychoanalysis and client-centered therapy C. client-centered therapies and behavior therapies D. psychoanalysis and drug therapies ____ 15) Tony believes that he is Thomas Edison, and he is convinced that his neighbors are spies who are trying to steal his inventions. He believes the neighbors break into his house and search for plans for new inventions when he is not home. Tony's symptoms are most consistent with those seen in A. paranoid schizophrenia B. undifferentiated schizophrenia C. catatonic schizophrenia D. disorganized schizophrenia ____ 16) In free association A. clients relate the events of their dreams as they remember them B. clients are restricted to talking about their sexual conflicts only C. clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feeli
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