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Chapters 1-3 Review Detailed info for chapters 1-3 - good study guide for exam.

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Psychology Chapters 1-3 Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology Psychology: science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. - Fundamental sciences of Psychology: philosophy & physiology. - Wilhelm Wundt (1879): first psychological research lab at Leipzig, Germany o Defined psychology as a study of consciousness - G. Stanley Hall helped Psychology grow in North America o Established first research lab o Founder of American Psychological Association - Structuralism: based on theory that psychology is should be to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and see how they are related. o Structuralists: led by Edward Titchener - Functionalism: based on theory that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of the consciousness, rather than the structure. o Inspired by William James o Functionalism paved way for behaviourism and applied psychology - Behaviourism: theory that psychology should only study observable behaviour. o Led by John B. Watson o Began to redefine psychology as a science of behaviour o Importance of nurture vs. nature (environment vs. heredity) - Sigmund Freud o Unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but still has a huge influence on behaviour. o Psychoanalytic Theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorder by focusing on the unconscious mind. - B.F Skinner o free will is an illusion. - Humanists (1950`s) o Led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers o Humanism: theory that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, i.e: their freedon amd potential for personal growth. - First experimental laboratory in Canada was at the University of Toronto (1891) by James Mark Baldwin. Perspective & its Principal Contributors Subject Matter Basic Premise Influential Period Behavioural John. B Watson - effects of - Only observable (1913 Present) Ivan Pavlov environment on overt events (stimulus- B.F Skinner behaviour of both response relation) can humans & animals be studied scientifically Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud - Unconscious - unconscious motives (1900 Present) Carl Jung determinants of and experiences in Alfred Adler behaviour early childhood governs personality and mental disorders. Humanistic Carl Rogers - Unique aspects of - humans are free, (1950- Present) Abraham Maslow human experience. rational beings with the potential for personal growth and they are fundamentally different from animals Cognitive Jean Piaget - Thoughts; mental - human behaviour (1950-Present) Noam Chomsky processes. cannot be fully Herbert Simon understood without examining how people acquire, store and process information Biological James Olds - Physiological basis of - an organism`s (1950-Present) Roger Sperry behaviour in humans functioning can be David Hubel and animals explained in terms of Torsten Wiesel bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behaviour Evolutionary David Buss - Evolutionary basis of - behaviour patterns (1980-Present) Martin Daly behaviour in humans have evolved to solve Margo Wilson and animals adaptive problems; Leda Cosmides natural selection John Tooby favours behaviours the enhance reproductive success. Key Research Methods in Psychology Research Method Description Advantages Disadvantages Naturalistic Prolonged observation Minimizes artificiality; Difficult to remain Observation of behaviour with no can be good to start unobtrusive; cant direct intervention with, if little explain certain knowledge about behaviour patterns phenomena is present. through observation only Surveys Questionaires/interviews Gather data on Self report(s) often to gather info about difficult to observe unreliable- intentional specific aspects about situations; relatively deception, social behaviour easy to collect from a desirability bias, large sample response sets, memory lapses & wishful thinking Case Studies In-depth investigation of Suitable for study of Subjectivity makes it single participant using certain phenomena; easy to see what you direct interview, direct provides compelling want to. Clinical observation and other illustrations to support samples are oftendata collection a theory unrepresentative. Experiment Manipulation of Precise control over Situations often independent variable in variable; draw artificial; controlled conditions, toconclusions about a ethical/practical see changes in cause-effect concerns dependant variable. relationship Theory Construction Hypothesis Empirical Findings support hypothesis; Theory (network of (predictions Research confidence in theory increases derived (study to test explanatory from hypothesis) ideas) Findings don`t support theory) hypothesis; confidence decreases; discard theory
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