Psychology Chapters 1-3
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
Psychology: science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it,
and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
- Fundamental sciences of Psychology: philosophy & physiology.
- Wilhelm Wundt (1879): first psychological research lab at Leipzig, Germany
o Defined psychology as a study of consciousness
- G. Stanley Hall helped Psychology grow in North America
o Established first research lab
o Founder of American Psychological Association
- Structuralism: based on theory that psychology is should be to analyze consciousness into its
basic elements and see how they are related.
o Structuralists: led by Edward Titchener
- Functionalism: based on theory that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of the
consciousness, rather than the structure.
o Inspired by William James
o Functionalism paved way for behaviourism and applied psychology
- Behaviourism: theory that psychology should only study observable behaviour.
o Led by John B. Watson
o Began to redefine psychology as a science of behaviour
o Importance of nurture vs. nature (environment vs. heredity)
- Sigmund Freud
o Unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of
conscious awareness but still has a huge influence on behaviour.
o Psychoanalytic Theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorder
by focusing on the unconscious mind.
- B.F Skinner
o free will is an illusion.
- Humanists (1950`s)
o Led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
o Humanism: theory that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, i.e: their freedon amd
potential for personal growth.
- First experimental laboratory in Canada was at the University of Toronto (1891) by James Mark
Perspective & its Principal Contributors Subject Matter Basic Premise
Behavioural John. B Watson - effects of - Only observable
(1913 Present) Ivan Pavlov environment on overt events (stimulus-
B.F Skinner behaviour of both response relation) can humans & animals be studied scientifically
Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud - Unconscious - unconscious motives
(1900 Present) Carl Jung determinants of and experiences in
Alfred Adler behaviour early childhood
and mental disorders.
Humanistic Carl Rogers - Unique aspects of - humans are free,
(1950- Present) Abraham Maslow human experience. rational beings with the
potential for personal
growth and they are
Cognitive Jean Piaget - Thoughts; mental - human behaviour
(1950-Present) Noam Chomsky processes. cannot be fully
Herbert Simon understood without
examining how people
acquire, store and
Biological James Olds - Physiological basis of - an organism`s
(1950-Present) Roger Sperry behaviour in humans functioning can be
David Hubel and animals explained in terms of
Torsten Wiesel bodily structures and
that underlie behaviour
Evolutionary David Buss - Evolutionary basis of - behaviour patterns
(1980-Present) Martin Daly behaviour in humans have evolved to solve
Margo Wilson and animals adaptive problems;
Leda Cosmides natural selection
John Tooby favours behaviours the
Key Research Methods in Psychology
Research Method Description Advantages Disadvantages
Naturalistic Prolonged observation Minimizes artificiality; Difficult to remain
Observation of behaviour with no can be good to start unobtrusive; cant
direct intervention with, if little explain certain
knowledge about behaviour patterns
phenomena is present. through observation
Surveys Questionaires/interviews Gather data on Self report(s) often
to gather info about difficult to observe unreliable- intentional
specific aspects about situations; relatively deception, social
behaviour easy to collect from a desirability bias,
large sample response sets, memory
lapses & wishful
Case Studies In-depth investigation of Suitable for study of Subjectivity makes it
single participant using certain phenomena; easy to see what you
direct interview, direct provides compelling want to. Clinical
observation and other illustrations to support samples are oftendata collection a theory unrepresentative.
Experiment Manipulation of Precise control over Situations often
independent variable in variable; draw artificial;
controlled conditions, toconclusions about a ethical/practical
see changes in cause-effect concerns
dependant variable. relationship
Hypothesis Empirical Findings support hypothesis;
(network of (predictions Research confidence in theory increases
derived (study to test
explanatory from hypothesis)
ideas) Findings don`t support
theory) hypothesis; confidence decreases;