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PsychologyNotes for the Exam.doc

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Psychology Notes1Psychologists study Acrophobia fear of heightsZoophobia fear of animalsfightingmatinghow hormones affect the brainPsychology comes from two Greek wordsPsychesoul logos studyThe study of the mindintellectual parents of psychology are the disciplines of philosophy and physiology Wilhelm Wundt German professor 1832 distinguished psychology as a independent discipline and not a stepladder of philosophy and physiology Thus Wilhelm Wundt is known as the founder of psychology1879 first university in research of psychology in Leipzig Hence historians have stated that 1879 is the year of birth for psychology According to WundtPrimary focus of psychology was consciousness the awareness of immediate experienceBetween 1883 and 1893 about 24 new psychological laboratories were discovered by Wilhelms students G Stanley Hall 18461924 studied with Wilhelm and important to the contribution of psychology in USAHall established Americas first research laboratory in psychology at Johns Hopking University in 1883Driving force behind American psychology associationAPAWorlds largest organization with over 155 000 membersBattle of the schools begins Structuralism versus FunctionalismFirst two major schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism entangled in psychologys first great intellectual battleStructuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward TitcherEnglishman who earned his degree under Wilhelm wundt Leipzig laboratory Structuralism Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related How hearing is related to smelling How they connect with one anotherIntrospection systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experienceFunctionalismbased on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure William Jameshad a career in medicine but joined a faculty in Harvard university to peruse a career in academiaWrote a book principals of psychology 1890Did not support structuralistsFunctionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behavior in the real world around themMary Whiton Calkins 1863 1930Studied under William JamesFirst woman to serve as president of the American psychological association in 1905Margaret Floy Washburn18711939First woman to receive a PHD in psychology Wrote a book called The Animal MindSecond president of the American Psychological Association in 1921Leta Stetter Hollingworth18861939Mental work on adolescent development mental retardation and gifted childrenFirst person to use the term gifted to refer youngsters who scored high on intelligence tests John B WatsonStated behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviorWanted scientists to study behavior they could observe directly rather than consciousness Watson meant that scientific approach can always be disproved and his method of studying behavior would be the most objectiveBehavior refers to any overt observable response or activity by an organism believed that behavior is not determined by genetics and is rather made through the environment we live aroundBehaviorists eventually came to study and view psychology as studying it by relating behavior with observable events environment Stimulus any detectable input from the environmentstarted to use animals in laboratories and studying their behaviors because the researches would have more control over the subjects Humans can request to go home at night whereas animals can be kept in the laboratory as long as desiredUnconscious mental processesSigmund Freud 18561939Austrian physicianwanted to treat mental disorderTreated people with psychological difficulties with a procedure referred to as psychoanalysisStated that psychological disturbances are caused by personal conflicts existing at a unconscious levelPsychoanalytic theory attempted to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviorBF SkinnerSupported John BWatson on studying behaviorism of psychologyBelieved that internal mental events could not be studied scientifically and therefore there was no reason to study themBelieved that environmental factors mold behavior but also acknowledged that the biological endowment influences behavior Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and hey tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomesAll behavior is determined by external stimuli and no actions are a result of conscious decisions The Humanists RevoltPsychoanalytic theory criticized for its beliefthat behavior is dominated by primitive sexual urges and behaviorism was criticized for its preoccupation with the study of simple animal behaviorNew school of thought called humanismHumanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow human behavior is governed primarily by each individuals sense of life or self concept which animals lackBelieved that to understand peoples behavior you must understand their personal growth Greatest contribution of humanists to psychology has been their treatment of psychological problems and disordersPsychology Comes of Age As a ProfessionApplied Psychology the branch of psychology concerned with everyday practical problems Clinical psychology branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disordersClinical psychology enlightened when World War 2 started for soldiers to treat their psychological scarsResearchers complaining that not enough study of psychology is going to the scientific portion and moreover to clinical psychologyNew organization formed in 1988 called the American Psychological Society APS which was to study the science of psychologyPsychology Returns to its Roots Psychologists these days are showing more interest in consciousness now referred to as cognition and the physiological bases of behaviorCognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledgecognitive theorists argue that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand behavior Electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals James Olds 1956Right and left halves of the brain are specialized to handle different types of mental tasks Roger Sperry 1981
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