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Intelligence A comprehensive 5 page review of Dr. Dax's lecture on Intelligence. These notes include psychometrics, IQ testing, multiple intelligences, savants, the importance of soft skills (e.g. honesty and hard work) and the nature vs. nurture debate.

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Dax Urbszat

PSY100 Monday November 15, 2010 Intelligence  Just because people believe something, doesn’t mean it is true o Everyone has different ideas about what intelligence is  IQ tests would suggest that memory from birth is what is to be measured – Dax thinks otherwise o It is a number that represents potential  it doesn’t represent anything that you have been done  You can have high IQ, but have done nothing o Is there a difference – smart of intelligent  Dax likes intelligence that focuses on problem solving (that has meaning and not everyday tasks) o Problems such as career options, passions, meaning of life  Intelligence is defined and shaped by cultures o If you can’t hunt or gather food, you are next to useless (even if you know quantum physics) o Western definition of intelligence is different than that in other countries  Psychometrics – tests that measure cognitive level o Sir Francis Galton thought that most people believed until a hundred years ago, that if you are in the highest strata of society, that’s because you’re smarter and vice versa o Galton decided to test this using correlational methods whether this belief was true  Tried to see whether how rich or poor you are coordinates with you intelligence  He found no correlation o Evidence does not support that rich people are smarter and poor people are dumber o Intelligence can be bent by the culture and educational system you are brought up in (resource and technique is not everything however)  Dax sent kids to Montessori schools because he feels public schools aren’t teaching appropriate things o Montessori schools teach practical application skills, triple memory processes (see, hear, read), communication skills, etiquette o Maria Montessori proved that everyone was capable o Intelligence seems to be randomly distributed throughout all ranges of people  Those who are born with higher intelligence will have advantages in all aspects of life in achieving goals  Binet and Simon measured verbal fluency (spelling, verbal comprehension), mathematical reasoning (like in math) o Devised concept of mental age  determined average ability of children and gave children a mental age accordingly o They wanted to compare children of different ages o *** They took mental age and divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 (to create a score relative to 100)  This is the basis for IQ measurement o If you mental age is 10 and your chronological age is 10, then your IA is 125 PSY100 Monday November 15, 2010 o Distribution of IQ scores are like height and are normally distributed (think of the bell curve) o 62.8% of people have IQ scores of 85-115 o One standard deviation is a change from average to superior (up or down any one category) o Down syndrome, PKU, autism responsible for profound mental retardation  IQ doesn’t predict anything on it’s own o Originally designed to predict success in school o .4-.5 correlation between IQ scores and school success (so it is only an average measurement)  Other factors are sleep, motivation, study techniques, effort o IQ might make it easier to understand, memorize, learn new concepts, but those people must still give a good effort o Take Mozart for example (he was broke, terrible with people etc.) but he gained “genius” status after his death o Take the Einstein example (terrible father, husband, writer, bad hygiene, terrible sense of style)  is he a genius because he knew the special laws of relativity?  Many people seem to think so  IQ predicts about .3-.4 correlation of success in jobs o If you have a low IQ, it is an excellent predictor of working success o The IQ has less predictive power as the IQ increases  Critisized because it has no underlying construct o Originally graded reading, writing and arithmetic  narrow scope of ability o There is no underlying theory for IQ test  Who say what we learn in school are the most important (like reading and arithmetic)? Or why are they considered better than other mental processes  Dax feels that these are not the only indicators of intelligence and other indicators are just as important  We have to take the IQ on faith (not common in science) o There is a cultural bias  scores depend on language, cultural experiences  Some immigrants may not understand some words or phrases (like cutting in line)  Immigrants from Italy, Germany and other European countries were test upon immigrating and people thought they were stupid because they scored low  Approaches to Intelligence o Psychometric approach  statistical techniques used to define intellectual skills and abilities o Information-processing  examining something more biological  Measures reaction time  These tests didn’t seem to do much better than IQ test o Multiple intelligences  Dax likes this PSY100 Monday November 15, 2010  Suggests intelligence is important across multiple domains because all are learnable, useful, applicable  IQ test is a one off- one time o What if you are sick, tired, had bad dreams o It is only a small piece of data from a large range of possible information o Experience increases ability on IQ tests  IQ tests are the best predictors of how long you will stay in school o IQ represents potential  what you could do  Multiple Intelligences o Tod is a C student, but is great at verbal linguistics/intelligence and has done well o Bill Gates dropped out of university in first year because he felt what he was learning wasn’t important  He has practical intelligence  you can’t learn in university o Oprah Winfrey is no genius, but she has social intelligence  she knows how to relate to people and make them comfortable  You can’t learn this in university  “g”  general intelligence  “s” speci
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