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PSY 100 - All Short Answer ( from the last couple of years) for Test 2 full

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Semester
Fall

Description
L0301 MW 3-4 [K 137] Test 2 2003 1. What is the difference between sensation and perception? [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment, whereas perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. 2. What is an absolute threshold? [2 marks] - An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment at least 50% of the time. 3. Explain how light is converted into electrochemical impulses in the brain. [3 marks] - Light travels through the pupil to the retina where it contacts the photoreceptors (rods and cones) and bleaches a pigment in the photoreceptors, which creates graded receptor potentials that eventually lead (through bipolar and amacrine cells) to action potentials in the ganglion cells. 4. Explain the Young-Hemholtz theory of color vision and provide two examples of phenomena that could not be explained by this theory. [4 marks] - The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths (red, green, and blue). This theory does not account for why afterimages of objects that are stared at, are seen in complimentary colors. It also does not account for why dichromats have trouble distinguishing either red from green or blue from yellow. [it does not account for why people prefer to use four colours (red, green, blue, and yellow) to describe different color shades]. 5. Brain waves that occur during alert wakefulness are called _______ waves. [1 mark]- beta 6. Identify and explain three attentional processes. [3 marks] - When focusing our attention we can orient ourselves to what is important in our environment by concentrating on important stimuli and ignoring unimportant stimuli. We can also control the content of our consciousness by determining what we think about and finally we can maintain alertness to be extra aware of our surroundings. 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid, fear-evoking dreams that occur during REM sleep? [1 mark] - Nightmares 8. Explain the Psychoanalytic view of dreaming. [4 marks] - This view believes that dreams are a window into the unconscious, where we can express our deepest, darkest desires without fear of scorn, ridicule, or punishment, and fulfill wishes that cannot otherwise be fulfilled in waking life. This view also believes that dreams contain important information from the unconscious that needs to be transferred to the conscious mind and that dream information is often expressed in symbolic language that must be interpreted to find the true meaning. 9. 9. Describe the process of classical conditioning using an example from your own life. [4 marks] - Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response [salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials. Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus as it alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the unconditioned response. 10. What is the Law of Effect? [2 marks] - Behavior is controlled by its consequences such that any response that is rewarded or reinforced, will be more likely than if not reinforced, to occur again in the future. 11. Explain the difference between fixed ratio and variable interval reinforcement schedules. Which works best? Explain why. [4 marks] - In a fixed ratio schedule an organism is reinforced at a constant rate, such as every third response or every fifth response. In a variable interval schedule a different amount of time passes before each reinforcer, such as after 2 minutes, then after 1 min. then after 3 min. (average 2 min.) In general, ratio schedules produce more rapid responding, however, variable schedules produce steadier rates of responding and greater resistance to extinction. L0101 MW 11-12 [room 2072] Test 2 2003 1. Give a definition for, and an example of, sensation. [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment. An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear. 2. What is a Just Noticeable Difference? [2 marks] - A JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect. 3. Describe the main visual pathway in the brain. [3 marks] - Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to the thalamus, which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex. Here the main pathway splits in two directions to the “what” and “where pathways”. 4. Explain the Opponent-Process theory of color vision. What areas of the brain are associated with this theory? [4 marks] - Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors: red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white. Evidence for this theory is found in ganglion cells in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex that respond in opposite ways to red versus green and blue versus yellow. For example, some ganglion cells are excited by green and inhibited by yellow and vice versa. 5. Brain waves that occur when relaxed and calm are called _____________ waves. [1 mark]- alpha 6. Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the unconscious. [3 marks] - Unconscious processes are rapid and efficient, so we can act without having to consciously think and analyze the situation. Also, unconscious processes can operate simultaneously with conscious processes so we can do more than one thing at a time, e.g., think about psychology while driving a car. Finally, the unconscious will operate in the absence of consciousness, such as when we are sleeping. 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by episodes of intense panic that occur during deep sleep early in the night? [1 mark] - Night Terrors 8. Explain the Cognitive view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The Cognitive view believes that dreams are constructed from the daily issues faced by the dreamer and that much of what we dream about is simply processing the information that we have attended to throughout the day. This view does not see dreams as particularly insightful or meaningful, rather, dreams are simply a way to clean out the brains memory storage units to make room for new information to be processed the next day. [I will accept the Problem-solving view of dreams here also] 9. 9. Explain the terms Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery, as they pertain to classical conditioning. [4 marks] - Acquisition refers to repeated pairings of an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus that converts the neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response. Extinction refers to the weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response. 10. 10. What is instinctive drift? [2 marks] - Instinctive drift occurs when an animal’s innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes. 11. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative punishment. [4 marks] - Positive punishment is when a negative or aversive event follows a behavior and weakens the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is a child who gets scolded for throwing their food. Negative punishment is when a positive or pleasant stimulus is removed following some behavior in order to weaken the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child stays out past curfew so the parent takes away their TV for a week. L0201 TR 1-2 [K 137] Test 2 2003 1. Give a definition and an example of perception. [2 marks] - Perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. An example would be looking at a picture and perceiving what the picture is about and what it means or hearing a sound and perceiving it to be the telephone ringing, meaning someone is calling you. 2. What is a Weber fraction? [2 marks] - Weber’s law states that the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus. This constant proportion is called a Weber fraction. 3. Explain the structure and function of the “what” and “where” pathways in the visual system. [3 marks] - After information is processed in the primary visual cortex signals are then shuttled along two pathways through the secondary visual cortex. The first pathway, called the parvocellular or “what” pathway, travels to the temporal lobes where information is processed regarding the color, form, and texture of objects. The second pathway, called the magnocellular or “where” pathway, leads to the parietal lobes where information is processed regarding the motion and depth of objects. 4. What are negative color afterimages and why are they significant to the trichromatic theory of color vision? [4 marks] - When you stare at an object for a long time it will imprint the image onto the retina so that when you then stare at a blank space you can see an afterimage of what you were staring at, however, the afterimage is seen in complementary colors, which are the colors that would mix with the original color to form gray. The phenomena of negative afterimages cannot be accounted for using the trichromatic theory of color vision. 5. Brain waves that occur during deep sleep are called ________ waves. [1 mark] - delta 6. Define and give an example of subliminal perception. [3 marks] - Subliminal perception occurs when we sense and perceive stimuli that do not reach the threshold of conscious awareness. For example, stimuli flashed on a computer screen for less than 33 milliseconds can influence behavior but when subjects are asked if they saw anything, they report that they did not. [Elderly people walk slower when subliminally primed with a negative stereotype about the elderly being slow, OR people state that they prefer a certain geometric shape, or character, or nonsense word, when it is subliminally flashed to them before being asked to pick their favorite from a group.] 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by nighttime awakenings brought on by the cessation of breathing during sleep? [1 mark] - Sleep Apnea 8. Explain the Biological view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The Biological view states that dreams represent the attempt of the cortex to interpret the random neural firing of the brain during sleep and that any images or themes found in our dreams are merely random occurrences. This theory, called the activation-synthesis model, believes that dreams are not particularly meaningful and it downplays the importance of emotional factors influencing the content of our dreams. 9. What is biological preparedness and what phenomena does it account for? [4 marks] - Preparedness involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways or to certain things and not others. Preparedness explains why certain phobias are easier to condition than others (e.g., snakes vs. rabbits), why taste aversions only occur with novel foods and will not be conditioned using visual or auditory neutral stimuli, and why instinctive drift can interfere with the operant conditioning process. 10. What is stimulus generalization and discrimination? [2 marks] - Stimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus and discrimination is when the organism does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. 11. Explain the difference between variable ratio and fixed interval reinforcement schedules. Which works best and why? [4 marks] - In a fixed interval schedule an organism is reinforced at a constant rate of time, such as every two minutes. In a variable ratio schedule an organism is reinforced following a varying number of responses, such as after 2 desired responses, then after 1, then after 3 (average after every 2 desired responses). In general, ratio schedules produce more rapid responding, however, variable schedules produce steadier rates of responding and greater resistance to extinctionL6001 TR 5-6 [K 137] Test 2 2003 1. Give an example of how context can affect perception. [ 2 marks] - With the “ratman” drawing, those who first saw drawings of animals saw a rat, whereas those who first saw drawings of faces saw an old man with glasses. OR in the 2 women illusion, elderly subjects tend to see the older woman first, whereas younger subjects tend to see the young woman first. 2. Give two examples of a Weber fraction. [2 marks] [any two] vision = 1/60, kinesthesis = 1/30, pain = 1/30, hearing = 1/10, pressure = 1/7, smell = 1/4 3. Describe the “secondary” visual pathway in the brain. What function does it serve? [3 marks] - Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve to the optic chiasm, where input from the inner half of each eye is sent to the superior colliculus before being routed through the thalamus and on to the occipital lobes. The secondary pathway reaches different areas of the thalamus and occipital lobe than the primary pathway and the principal function seems to be the coordination of visual input with other sensory input. 4. Explain how the Young-Hemholtz and Opponent-Process theories work together to explain color vision. [4 marks] - The Y-H theory or trichromatic theory of color vision states that the human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths (red, green, and blue). The Opponent-Process theory states that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors: red-green, yellow- blue, and black-white. These theories work together as the trichromatic theory explains color perception in the cones of the retina, whereas the Opponent Process theory explains color perception in the ganglion cells, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex. 5. Brain waves that occur during REM sleep are called ______________ waves. [1 mark] - beta 6. Identify and explain three theories concerning the function of sleep. [3 marks] [any three] - Memory consolidation: we sleep in order to consolidate our experiences during the day into our long term memory. Energy conservation: we sleep in order to lower our core body temperature to conserve energy for activity in the day. Preservation from predators: we sleep to lessen the chances of being out and about when predators may be around. Restoring bodily functions: we sleep to rest and maintain our cognitive and perceptual- motor skills 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep at night? [1 mark] - Insomnia 8. Explain the Evolutionary view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The Evolutionary view believes that dreams evolved as a way for humans and animals to rehearse behavioral patterns to threatening stimuli without actually having to confront the dangerous situation in real life. In essence, dreaming is a virtual reality threat simulation exercise that allows us to practice behaviors that will help us in real life emergencies without being exposed to any real threat. 9. Explain how a conditioned taste aversion develops and state why it is unique from other types of classical conditioning. [4 marks] - If someone gets viral gastroenteritis or “stomach flu” [the unconditioned stimulus] and becomes violently ill [the unconditioned response], a food that was eaten that day can become associated with being ill [unconditioned response] such that the specific food becomes a conditioned stimuli for feeling ill [conditioned response]. Taste aversions are unique in that it requires only one pairing of the CS and UCS, taste aversions are extremely difficult to condition to stimuli other than orally ingested substances (biological preparedness or signal relations), and the UCR can follow the CS by up to many hours later. 10. What is observational learning? [2 marks] - Observational learning occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Essentially, it involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another’s conditioning. 11. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative reinforcement. [4 marks] - Negative reinforcement is when a negative or aversive stimulus is taken away by some behavior thereby strengthening the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is taking an aspirin to reduce a headache will increase the likelihood of future aspirin taking. Positive reinforcement is when a positive or pleasant stimulus follows some behavior and strengthens the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child does her homework she gets praise from her mother or gets a gold star from her teacher increasing the likelihood of doing homework again in the future. L0101 Tuesday 1 - 3 Test 2 2004 12. Give a definition for, and an example of, sensation. [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment. An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear. 13. What is a Just Noticeable Difference? [2 marks] - A JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect. 14. Describe the main visual pathway in the brain. [6 marks] - Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to the thalamus, which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex. Here the main pathway splits in two directions to the “what” (or parvocellular) pathway that sends information to the temporal lobes to identify the color, form, and texture of objects, and the “where” (or magnocellular) pathway that sends signals to the parietal lobes to process information regarding motion, depth, and location. 15. Explain the Opponent-Process theory of color vision. What areas of the brain are associated with this theory? [4 marks] - Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors: red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white. Evidence for this theory is found in ganglion cells in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex that respond in opposite ways to red versus green and blue versus yellow. For example, some ganglion cells are excited by green and inhibited by yellow and vice versa. 16. Brain waves that occur when we are relaxed and calm are called _______ waves. [1 mark] - alpha 17. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by episodes of intense panic that occur during deep sleep early in the night? [1 mark] - Night Terrors 7. Explain the Psychoanalytic view of dreaming. [4 marks] - This view believes that dreams are a window into the unconscious, where we can express our deepest, darkest desires without fear of scorn, ridicule, or punishment, and fulfill wishes that cannot otherwise be fulfilled in waking life. This view also believes that dreams contain important information from the unconscious that needs to be transferred to the conscious mind and that dream information is often expressed in symbolic language (manifest content) that must be interpreted to find the true meaning (latent content). 8. 8. Describe the process of classical conditioning using an example from your own life. [4 marks] - Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response [salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials. Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus, as it alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the unconditioned response. 9. What is the Law of Effect? [2 marks] - Behavior is controlled by its consequences such that any response that is rewarded or reinforced, will be more likely than if not reinforced, to occur again in the future. 10. Explain the difference between fixed ratio and variable interval reinforcement schedules. Which works best and explain why? [4 marks] - In a fixed ratio schedule an organism is reinforced at a constant rate, such as every third response or every fifth response. In a variable interval schedule a different amount of time passes before each reinforcer, such as after 2 minutes, then after 1 min. then after 3 min. (average 2 min.) In general, ratio schedules produce more rapid responding, however, variable schedules produce steadier rates of responding and greater resistance to extinction. L0201 Thursday 1-3 Test 2 2004 11. Give a definition and an example of perception. [2 marks] - Perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. An example would be looking at a picture and perceiving what the picture is about and what it means or hearing a sound and perceiving it to be the telephone ringing, meaning someone is calling you. 12. What is a Weber fraction? [1 mark] - Weber’s law states that the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus. 13. Explain the structure and function of the “what” and “where” pathways in the visual system. [4 marks] - After information is processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are then shuttled along two pathways through the secondary visual cortex. The first pathway, called the parvocellular or “what” pathway, travels to the temporal lobes where information is processed regarding the color, form, and texture of objects. The second pathway, called the magnocelluar or “where” pathway, leads to the parietal lobes where information is processed regarding the motion and depth of objects. 14. What are negative color afterimages and why are they significant to the trichromatic (or Young- Hemholtz) theory of color vision? [4 marks] - When you stare at an object for a long time it will imprint the image onto the retina so that when you then stare at a blank space you can see an afterimage of what you were staring at, however, the afterimage is seen in complementary colors. The phenomena of negative afterimages cannot be accounted for using the trichromatic theory of color vision and thus, the Opponent Process model was created to explain negative afterimages. 15. Brain waves that occur during deep sleep are called ______________ waves. [1 mark] - delta 16. Define and give an example of subliminal perception. [3 marks] - Subliminal perception occurs when we sense and perceive stimuli that do not reach the threshold of conscious awareness. For example, stimuli flashed on a computer screen for less than 33 milliseconds can influence behavior, but when subjects are asked if they saw anything, they report that they did not. [Elderly people walk slower when subliminally primed with a negative stereotype about the elderly being slow, OR people state that they prefer a certain geometric shape, or character, when it is subliminally flashed to them before being asked to pick their favorite from a group, OR people pick the toothpaste paired with the pleasant music over the one not paired with pleasant music.] 17. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by nighttime awakenings brought on by the cessation of breathing during sleep? [1 mark] - Sleep Apnea 18. Explain the Biological view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The biological view states that dreams represent the attempt of the cortex to interpret the random neural firing of the brain during sleep and that any images or themes found in our dreams are merely random occurrences. This theory, called the activation-synthesis hypothesis, believes that dreams are not particularly meaningful and it downplays the importance of emotional factors influencing the content of our dreams. 19. What is biological preparedness and what phenomena does it account for? [4 marks] - Preparedness involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways or to certain things and not others. Preparedness explains why certain phobias are easier to condition than others (e.g., snakes vs. rabbits), why taste aversions only occur with novel foods and will not be conditioned using visual or auditory neutral stimuli, and why instinctive drift can interfere with the operant conditioning process. 20. 10. Explain the terms Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery, as they pertain to classical conditioning. [2 marks] - Extinction refers to the weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response. 21. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative punishment. [4 marks] - Positive punishment is when a negative or aversive event follows a behavior and weakens the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is a child who gets scolded for throwing her food. Negative punishment is when a positive or pleasant stimulus is removed following some behavior in order to weaken the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child stays out past curfew so the parent takes away his TV for a week. L6001 Monday 5-7 Test 2 2004 5. What is the difference between sensation and perception? [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment, whereas perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. 6. What is an absolute threshold? [2 marks] - An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment at least 50% of the time. 7. Explain how light is converted into electrochemical impulses in the brain. [3 marks] - Light travels through the pupil to the retina where it contacts the photoreceptors (rods and cones) and bleaches a pigment in the photoreceptors, which creates graded receptor potentials, that when they add up and reach the threshold, lead to action potentials in the ganglion cells. 8. Explain the Young-Hemholtz theory of color vision. [4 marks] - In the retina of the human eye (specifically in the fovea) there are three types of photoreceptors (cones) with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths: short cones are sensitive to blue (short wavelengths), medium cones are sensitive to green (medium wavelengths) and long cones are sensitive to red long wavelengths). These three colors mix to create the perception of all colors. [just like a TV set has only three colors (red, green and blue)] not necessary for full marks 5. Brain waves that occur during alert wakefulness are called ____________ waves. [1 mark] - beta 6. Identify and explain three theories concerning the function of sleep. [3 marks] - Memory consolidation: we sleep in order to consolidate our experiences during the day into our long term memory. Energy conservation: we sleep in order to lower our core body temperature to conserve energy for activity in the day. Preservation from predators: we sleep to lessen the chances of being out and about when predators may be around. Restoring bodily functions: we sleep to rest and maintain our cognitive and perceptual motor skills. 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid, fear-evoking dreams that occur during REM sleep? [1 mark]- Nightmares 8. Explain the Evolutionary view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The evolutionary view believes that dreams evolved as a way for humans and animals to rehearse behavioral patterns to threatening stimuli without actually having to confront the dangerous situation in real life. In essence, dreaming is a virtual reality threat simulation exercise that allows us to practice behaviors that will help us in real life emergencies without being exposed to any real threat. 9. Explain how a conditioned taste aversion develops and state why it is unique from other types of classical conditioning. [4 marks] - If someone gets viral gastroenteritis or “stomach flu” [the unconditioned stimulus] and becomes violently ill [the unconditioned response], a food that was eaten that day can become associated with being ill [unconditioned response] such that the specific food becomes a conditioned stimulus for feeling ill [conditioned response]. Taste aversions are unique in that it requires only one pairing of the CS and UCS, taste aversions are extremely difficult to condition to stimuli other than orally ingested substances (biological preparedness or signal relations), and the UCR can follow the CS by up to many hours later. 10. What is observational learning? [2 marks] - Observational learning occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Essentially, it involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another’s conditioning. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative reinforcement. [4 marks] - Negative reinforcement is when a negative or aversive stimulus is taken away by some behavior thereby strengthening the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is taking an aspirin to reduce a headache will increase the likelihood of future aspirin taking.. Positive reinforcement is when a positive or pleasant stimulus follows some behavior and strengthens the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child does her homework she gets praise from her mother or gets a gold star from her teacher increasing the likelihood of doing homework again in the future. 1. Hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream. Their influence on behavior is slower and longer lasting than the influence of neurotransmitters, the chemical agents of the nervous system. (2 points) 2. Self consciousness is effected by the following factors (name factor and state direction of effect where possible): (3 points) • Personality • Familiarity with situation – lower self consc
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