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Psychology midterm 1 chapters 1-4 and lectures 1-4.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Psychology chapter 1 What is psychology In Greek psyche means soul and logos means the study of Psychology refers to the study of the mind Why is psychology so diverse Why do psychologists study subjects such as physiology and chemistry Wundt established that psychology was a study of consciousness The methods of research resembled those of chemistry and physicsWilliam Harveys empirical demonstration that the blood was operated by the heart Physiology and medicine also contributed to the study of psychology How did psychology develop from early philosophical speculations about the mind Ancient Greek philosophers such as Socrates Plato and Aristotle often speculated about how the mind works They debated subjects such as the separation of mind and body rationalism vs empiricism Aristotles theory of memory is still relevant to us today he proposed that memory is the result of 3 forms of association similarity contrast and contiguity The impact of philosophy continued throughout the renaissance eraWho was Wundt and what was his contribution to psychology German professor who wanted to make psychology an independent discipline instead of a sub discipline 1879 Wundt succeeds on making the first research lab dedicated to psychology date known as the birth of psychology Structuralism vs functionalismEdward Titchener was the leader of structuralism Structuralism was based on the notion that psychology analyzed consciousness in its most basic elements and examines how they are related Structuralists used methods of introspection and of self examination of ones own consciousness The subject was trained to be more aware and received visualauditory stimulus They were then asked about the experience Limitation if subjective observations are depended on then there is no independent objective evaluation of that claim Functionalists believed that psychology should study the function and purpose of consciousness rather than its elements William James was the chief of functionalism James became interested in Charles Darwins theory of natural selection This notion suggested that typical characteristics of a species must have its own purpose William James applied this to humans and to consciousness as a characteristicJames argued that structuralists were missing the real nature of consciousness as a flow of thought By studying its elements they were looking at static points in that flow He wanted to understand the flow itself which he called the stream of consciousness While structuralists go into the laboratory functionalists were interested in how people adapt to the demands of the real worldThis lead functionalists to introduce new subjects into psychology such as mental health and health in adolescence effectiveness of educational practices and the behavioural differences between the sexes Between the two sides most historians believe that functionalists won Functionalists gave way to applied psychology and behavioural psychologyWatson and behaviouralism Behaviouralismscientific psychology should study observable behaviour
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