____ 1) All of the following were cited in the textbook as factors which promote relaxation
A. developing a passive attitude
B. drinking a small amount of alcohol
C. being in a comfortable position
D. focusing on a constant stimulus
____ 2) The Flashback football team had been down by 35 points at half-time, but they had made
a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock they
made a touchdown that narrowed the other team's lead to a single point. Their quarterback
has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point
in the dying seconds. As the team lines up for the final play of the game, both the quarterback
and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing
____ 3) The name Hans Selye gave to the body's response to stress is
A. the fight-or-flight response
B. the general adaptation syndrome
D. defensive coping
____ 4) A group that one belongs to and identifies with is known as a(n)
B. social schema
____ 5) Which of the following has been shown to increase the risk of such chronic diseases as
lung cancer, emphysema, and stroke?
B. poor nutrition
C. lack of exercise
____ 6) Evidence from numerous studies of the bystander effect suggests that
A. it is a widespread phenomenon
B. it is limited to contrived laboratory situations
C. it occurs only in urban ghetto areas
D. there is much truth to the old saying that "there is safety in numbers"
____ 7) Which of the following is not typically a reason for noncompliance with medical advice?
A. having a negative attitude for physicians
B. failing to understand advice or instructions
C. the degree of difficulty associated with following advice or instructions
D. the cost of the medical treatment program
____ 8) Marriages arranged by families and other go-betweens remain common in cultures high
D. self-monitoring ____ 9) Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on
obedience to authority?
A. Solomon Asch
B. Daryl Bem
C. Leon Festinger
D. Stanley Milgram
____ 10) The Featured Study by Cohen and his colleagues showed that high-stress subjects had a
higher incidence of colds than low-stress subjects. This finding indicates that illness and
levels of stress are
B. negatively correlated
C. positively correlated
D. multifactorial variables
____ 11) When Jerry thought he was the only person who was assigned the job of contacting
alumni for a 15-year reunion, he spent several hours on the phone each evening trying to
reach members of his graduating class. When he learned that eight other people were also
working on contacting the alumni he spent only 30 minutes each night making phone calls.
The process that would best explain the decrease in Jerry's effort when he learned that he was
working as part of a larger group, is
A. social interference
B. social loafing
C. the bystander effect
D. social dissonance
____ 12) Actors and observers tend to give different explanations for the same instance of behavior
A. only actors themselves can accurately explain their own behavior
B. only outside observers can accurately explain actors' behavior
C. observers tend to possess more knowledge than the actors
D. situational pressures may not be readily apparent to an observer
____ 13) The week of final exams subjects most students to what kind of stress?
____ 14) A man who believes that "women just don't make good leaders" may dwell on his female
supervisor's mistakes and quickly forget about her achievements. This scenario illustrates
which of the following concepts?
A. defensive attribution
B. the illusory correlation effect
C. the fundamental attribution error
D. the bystander effect
____ 15) Bruce performed very well on the examination, which he attributed to native ability and
hard work. Which bias does this illustrate?
A. the fundamental attribution error
B. the actor-observer bias
C. the self-serving bias D. illusory correlation
____ 16) Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people are referred to as
B. illusory correlations
C. covariation inferences
D. social schemas
____ 17) Individualism is to collectivism as __________ is to __________.
A. external; internal
B. personal; group
C. communism; capitalism
D. All of these complete the analogy correctly.
____ 18) The final stage of Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome during which the organism's
resources for fighting stress may be depleted is called
____ 19) The two major pathways via which the brain may signal the endocrine system are through
A. parasympathetic and sympathetic systems
B. circulatory and muscular systems
C. pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system
D. autonomic and skeletal nervous systems
____ 20) A person who is hard-driving, ambitious, competitive, and at risk for having a heart
attack is said to have __________ personality.
A. a Type B
B. an internal
C. an external
D. a Type A
____ 21) According to Baumeister, the pressure to perform can elevate self-consciousness, which
then disrupts our attention by
A. diverting attention from the demands of the task
B. causing us to perform too automatically
C. creating an approach-avoidance conflict
D. activating our autonomic nervous system
____ 22) Frustration refers to
A. being blocked in the pursuit of a desired goal
B. the most frequent emotional response to aggression
C. being caught between two incompatible motives
D. being expected to live up to high standards of performance
____ 23) Elliot Aronson views inconsistency as the key to dissonance, but maintains that it is
inconsistency between one's __________ and one's __________ that motivates dissonance.
A. emotions; behavior
B. self-concept; behavior
C. behavior; attributions
D. self-concept; unconscious urges
____ 24) Which of the following statements regarding the effectiveness of two-sided arguments is
accurate? A. Presenting a two-sided argument often confuses the receiver and decreases a source's persuasiveness.
B. Two-sided arguments should be avoided, since the receiver shouldn't be informed that there is an
alternative to the source's view.
C. Overall, two-sided arguments tend to be more effective than one-sided arguments.
D. Two-sided arguments tend to be effective with women, but not with men.
____ 25) Valerie is doing homework for her statistics class. When she checks the answer she has
just calculated for the problem she has been working on, she finds it is incorrect. She is
frustrated, and tells her roommate: "I don't know why I'm even trying, I'll never catch on in
this course. I should just give up now." According to Albert Ellis, Valerie's statements reflect
A. defensive coping
B. mental disengagement
C. catastrophic thinking
D. reality-based coping
____ 26) Recent research evidence from studies which have investigated the link between
depression and heart disease suggests that
A. the stress of living with heart disease may cause the onset of depression
B. depression and heart disease are not correlated with each other
C. the emotional dysfunction of depression may cause heart disease
D. depression and heart disease are both caused by the negative effects of smoking
____ 27) According to Hazan and Shaver's model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults
with which of the following attachment styles are most likely to have satisfying,
interdependent, and long-lasting relationships?
____ 28) Behavioral vacillation would be most apt to go with which type of conflict?
____ 29) In making a causal attribution, we first tend to decide if an event was due to __________
A. subjective or objective
B. usual or unusual
C. positive or negative
D. internal or external
____ 30) Groupthink is more likely when the group
A. does not have a designated leader
B. must justify their decision to other groups in the same organization
C. is under pressure to make a major decision
D. experiences any of these things