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PSY100 test 3

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Test 3 L0201 Tues 241In the Levels of Processing model describe and provide an example for deep processing 3 marksdeep processing or semantic encoding would include attaching meaning or symbolism to help remember a word such as a visual imagery and meaningful examples This method leads to superior retrieval of information2Identify two types of verbal mnemonics and give an example for each 4 marks any two acrostics are poems or sayings whose first letter from each word represents something to be remembered Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge represents the lines of the treble cleft acronyms are words created wherein each letter represents something to be remembered Roy G Biv is a name that represents the colors of the visible light spectrum rhymes and songs are used to help remember things such as I before E except after C 3Explain the Recency effect 2 markswhen trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7or2 bits of information we often remember the last few words in the list since the last few words are still fresh in the STM store and have not yet started to decay4Semantic and episodic memory are two types ofmemory1 markdeclarative5What are semantics and syntax 2 markssemantics refers to the meanings of words syntax refers to the rules of sentence structure6 Provide three pieces of evidence that suggest language development is innate 3 marks language acquisition seems to develop in similar ways across all cultures children can learn a second language much more easily than adults can children isolated from language during critical periods for language development may never learn complex language and always show deficits7List 4 common barriers to problems solving 2 marks 12 mark each using irrelevant information functional fixedness mental sets unnecessary constraints8Provide an explanation and an example of illusory correlation 3 marksillusory correlations occur when you believe there is a relationship between two events that does not exist in reality eg any superstition like believing blowing on the dice improves the chances of a winning roll or thinking that your lucky rabbits foot helps you win at Bingo 9State two criticisms of the validity of IQ tests 4 marksIQ tests have a minimal theoretical basis since there are no underlying constructs or guidelines used to devise the tests In fact they are originally based on faulty theories like Galtons IQ tests are culturally biased such that scores depend on what your native language is and the similarity of cultural experiences with those who devised the test eg immigrants from Europe who did not have English as a first language were deemed mental defectives because they did not have good scores and people from huntergatherer civilizations would also score poorly even if they were highly intelligent 10What is the information processing approach to intelligence testing 3 marksthe IP approach examines the processes that underlie intelligent behavior such as speed of processing or how rapidly someone can perform a mental task knowledge base and the ability to apply new mental strategies11What is the Flynn effect Give two possible explanations for this phenomenon 3 marks refers to the fact that the level of performance required to earn a score of 100 on IQ tests has risen steadily all over the industrialized world since the 1930s one possible explanation is a reduction in the prevalence of severe malnutrition among children another possible explanation is that TV and video games have enhanced visuospatial and other cognitive skillsTest 3 L0101 Mon 24 1In the Levels of Processing model describe and provide an example for intermediate processing 3 marksintermediate processing or phonemic encoding would include remembering how a word sounds or if the word rhymes with something familiar This method is the most common form of encoding but leads to only average retrieval of information2Explain each of the following methods of improving encoding Overlearning Transferappropriate processing Distributed practice4 marksoverlearning is when you continue to rehearse information after you have mastered it to increase resistance to decay and improve ease of retrieval transferappropriate processing means that you need to match encoding techniques with type of retrieval questionsFor example to study for a multiple choice test you should practice multiple choice questions and to study for a short answer test you should practice by doing short answer questionsdistributed practice means that it is better to study 1 hour per day for four days than to study 4 hours in a row if you want to improve encoding storage and retrieval of information3Explain the Primacy effect 2 markswhen trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7 or2 bits of information we usually remember the first few words quite well as we have time to rehearse and phonemically encode them before too much interference is encountered from the rest of the list4Memory for specific skills such as riding a bike or driving a car is known asmemory 1 markprocedural I would accept implicit as well5What is a phoneme and how many are there in human language 2 marksa phoneme is the smallest unit of sound and there are 100 in human language6Briefly describe the general development of language from birth to 2 years of age 4 marksup to 6 months there is crying cooing smiling and other nonverbal communication from 618 months there is babbling consisting of repeated consonantvowel pairs eg lalalala first words emerge around 1013 months from 18 to 24 months there is a vocabulary spurt with up to 20 new words being learned every week fast mapping7What do you call a methodical stepbystep procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem 1 markalgorithm8Provide an explanation and an example for the confirmatory bias 3 marksthis bias occurs when we are more likely to perceive attend to and remember things that confirm our beliefs and ignore or discount disconfirming evidence eg at any given game fans of both teams will likely believe the referee was biased only against their team or police sometimes ignore evidence that might exonerate their suspect9What is the factor analytic approach to intelligence testing and who first proposed this approach 3 marks the factor analytic approach uses statistical procedures called factor analysis to look for items that correlate together and try to find a common factor that is influencing all the related items in a particular cluster Charles Spearman first proposed this approach10What is Gardners theory of multiple intelligences and provide 3 examples
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