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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Semester
Fall

Description
L0101 M2-4 Test 2 2007 1. What is the difference between sensation and perception? [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment, whereas perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. 2. What is an absolute threshold? [2 marks] - An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment 50% of the time. 3. Describe the main visual pathway in the brain. [3 marks] - Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to the thalamus, which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex. Here the main pathway splits in two directions to the “what” and “where” pathways. 4. What are the three classes of human skin receptors? [3 marks] –Touch: physical contact of objects with the skin –Temperature of objects –Pain: destruction of skin tissue 5. Describe the types of brain waves found during the five different stages of sleep. [5 marks] Stage 1: theta waves Stage 2: theta waves with K complexes and spindles Stage 3: mostly theta and delta waves (slow wave sleep) appear Stage 4: mostly delta waves REM: beta waves present and brain waves resemble waking activity 6. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid, fear-evoking dreams that occur during REM sleep? [1 mark] a. Nightmares 6. Describe the Stroop task and state which part of a subject’s brain is most activated while performing this task. [4 marks] - subjects are asked to identify the color of a word. The words are names of colors other than the actual color of the word e.g., R-E-D written in green color - the right brain dominant color detection areas of the brain receive interference from the language processing areas of the brain dominant in the left hemisphere and it thus takes longer to identify the color - this task is associated with activation of the dorso-lateral pre-frontal cortex 8. Describe the process of classical conditioning using an example from your own life. [4 marks] - Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response [salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials. Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus, as it alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the unconditioned response. 9. Explain and give examples for positive and negative reinforcement. [4 marks] - Negative reinforcement is when a negative or aversive stimulus is taken away by some behavior thereby strengthening the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is taking an aspirin to reduce a headache will increase the likelihood of future aspirin taking. Positive reinforcement is when a positive or pleasant stimulus follows some behavior and strengthens the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child does her homework she gets praise from her mother or gets a gold star from her teacher increasing the likelihood of doing homework again in the future. 10. Define and give an example of escape learning. [2 marks] - this is a form of negative reinforcement where you escape a feared or unpleasant stimulus and when you get away you feel so much better L0201 T 2-4 Test 2 2007 1. Give a definition for, and an example of, sensation. [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment. An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear. 2. What is a Just Noticeable Difference? [1 mark] - A JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect. 3. Explain how light is converted into electrochemical impulses in the brain. [3 marks] - Light travels through the pupil to the retina where it contacts the photoreceptors (rods and cones) and bleaches a pigment in the photoreceptors, which creates graded receptor potentials that eventually lead (through bipolar and amacrine cells) to action potentials in the ganglion cells. 4. Explain the Young-Hemholtz (tri-chromatic) theory of color vision and provide two examples of phenomena that could not be explained by this theory. [4 marks] - The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths (red, green, and blue). This theory does not account for why afterimages of objects that are stared at, are seen in complimentary colors. It also does not account for why dichromats have trouble distinguishing either red from green or blue from yellow. [It does not account for why people prefer to use four colours (red, green, blue, and yellow) to describe different color shades.] 5. Brain waves that occur when we are relaxed and calm are called _____________ waves. [1 mark] - alpha 6. Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the unconscious. [3 marks] - Unconscious processes are rapid and efficient, so we can act without having to consciously think and analyze the situation. Also, unconscious processes can operate simultaneously with conscious processes so we can do more than one thing at a time, e.g., think about psychology while driving a car. Finally, the unconscious will operate in the absence of consciousness, such as when we are sleeping. 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by episodes of intense panic and at what stage of sleep are they usually found? [2 mark] - Night Terrors, during slow wave delta sleep (stage 4) 8. Explain the Cognitive view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The Cognitive view believes that dreams are constructed from the daily issues faced by the dreamer and that much of what we dream about is simply processing the information that we have attended to throughout the day. This view does not see dreams as particularly insightful or meaningful, rather, dreams are simply a way to clean out the brain’s memory storage units to make room for new information to be processed the next day. [I will accept the Problem-solving view of dreams here also] 9. Explain how a conditioned taste aversion develops and state why it is unique from other types of classical conditioning. [4 marks] - If someone gets viral gastroenteritis or “stomach flu” [the unconditioned stimulus] and becomes violently ill [the unconditioned response], a food that was eaten that day can become associated with being ill [unconditioned response] such that the specific food becomes a conditioned stimulus for feeling ill [conditioned response]. Taste aversions are unique in that it requires only one pairing of the CS and UCS, taste aversions are extremely difficult to condition to stimuli other than orally ingested substances (biological preparedness or signal relations), and the UCR can follow the CS by up to many hours later. 10. What is observational learning? [2 marks] - Observational learning occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Essentially, it involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another’s conditioning. 11. Explain the difference between fixed ratio and variable interval reinforcement schedules. Which works best and explain why? [4 marks] - In a fixed ratio schedule an organism is reinforced at a constant rate, such as every third response or every fifth response. In a variable interval schedule a different amount of time passes before each reinforcer, such as after 2 minutes, then after 1 min., then after 3 min. (average 2 min). In general, ratio schedules produce more rapid responding, however, variable schedules produce steadier rates of responding and greater resistance to extinction. L6001 M 6-8 Test 2 2007 1. Give a definition and an example of perception. [2 marks] - Perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. An example would be looking at a picture and perceiving what the picture is about and what it means or hearing a sound and perceiving it to be the telephone ringing, meaning someone is calling you. 2. Describe the location and function of the two types of photoreceptor cells? [2 marks] •Cones: found in center of retina (fovea) and are sensitive to fine detail and color •Rods: found in periphery of retina and are sensitive to movement but not fine detail (better for night vision) 3. Explain the structure and function of the “what” and “where” pathways in the visual system. [3 marks] - After information is processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are then shuttled along two pathways through the secondary visual cortex. The first pathway, called the parvocellular or “what” pathway, travels to the temporal lobes where information is processed regarding the color, form, and texture of objects. The second pathway, called the magnocelluar or “where” pathway, leads to the parietal lobes where information is processed regarding the motion and depth of objects. 4. What are negative color afterimages and why are they significant to the trichromatic theory of color vision? [4 marks] - When you stare at an object for a long time it will imprint the image onto the retina so that when you then stare at a blank space you can see an afterimage of what you were staring at, however, the afterimage is seen in complementary colors, which are the colors that would mix with the original color to form gray. The phenomena of negative afterimages cannot be accounted for using the trichromatic theory of color vision. 5. Brain waves that occur during deep sleep are called ______________ waves. [1 mark] - delta 6. Define and give an example of subliminal perception. [3 marks] - Subliminal perception occurs when we sense and perceive stimuli that do not reach the threshold of conscious awareness. For example, stimuli flashed on a computer screen for less than 33 milliseconds can influence behavior but when subjects are asked if they saw anything, they report that they did not. [e.g. people state that they prefer a certain geometric shape, or character, or nonsense word, when it is subliminally flashed to them before being asked to pick their favorite from a group OR any reasonable example.] 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by nighttime awakenings brought on by the cessation of breathing during sleep? [1 mark] - Sleep Apnea 8. Explain the Evolutionary view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The evolutionary view believes that dreams evolved as a way for humans and animals to rehearse behavioral patterns to threatening stimuli without actually having to confront the dangerous situation in real life. In essence, dreaming is a virtual reality threat simulation exercise that allows us to practice behaviors that will help us in real life emergencies without being exposed to any real threat. 9. What is biological preparedness and what phenomena does it account for? [4 marks] - Preparedness involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways or to certain things and not others. Preparedness explains why certain phobias are easier to condition than others (e.g., snakes vs. rabbits), why taste aversions only occur with novel foods and will not be conditioned using visual or auditory neutral stimuli, and why instinctive drift can interfere with the operant conditioning process. 10. Explain the terms Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery, as they pertain to classical conditioning. [2 marks] - Extinction refers to the weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative punishment. [4 marks] - Positive punishment is when a negative or aversive event follows a behavior and weakens the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is a child who gets scolded for throwing their food. Negative punishment is when a positive or pleasant stimulus is removed following some behavior in order to weaken the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child stays out past curfew so the parent takes away their TV for a week. L0101 W 2-4 Test 2 2006 1. Give three reasons why vision is the dominant human sense. [3 marks] - allows for detection of movement (predators for survival and for the hunting of prey) - food gathering requires vision and visual memory (color for ripe or poisonous) - light travels faster and straighter than other sense energies such as sound, smell, or touch 2. Describe the location and function of the two types of photoreceptor cells. [4 marks] •Cones: found in center of retina (fovea) and are sensitive to fine detail and color •Rods: found in periphery of retina and are sensitive to movement but not fine detail (better for night vision) 3. Describe the “what” and “where” pathways in the human visual system. [4 marks] - After information is processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are then shuttled along two pathways through the secondary visual cortex. The first pathway, called the parvocellular or “what” pathway, travels to the temporal lobes where information is processed regarding the color, form, and texture of objects. The second pathway, called the magnocelluar or “where” pathway, leads to the parietal lobes where information is processed regarding the motion and depth of objects. 4. Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the unconscious. [3 marks] - Unconscious processes are rapid and efficient, so we can act without having to consciously think and analyze the situation. Also, unconscious processes can operate simultaneously with conscious processes so we can do more than one thing at a time, e.g., think about psychology while driving a car. Finally, the unconscious will operate in the absence of consciousness, such as when we are sleeping. 5. What are the two types of brainwaves that occur when someone is awake and when are they most likely to occur? [2 marks] - beta waves occur when we are awake and actively thinking -alpha waves occur just before we fall asleep or when we are meditating 6. What is REM sleep? [4 marks] Characteristics of REM sleep –Presence of rapid-eye-movements –Presence of dreaming –Increased autonomic nervous system activity –EEG resembles that of awake state (beta wave) –Motor paralysis (except for diaphragm and ocular muscles) 7. Explain how a conditioned taste aversion develops and state why it is unique from other types of classical conditioning. [4 marks] - If someone gets viral gastroenteritis or “stomach flu” [the unconditioned stimulus] and becomes violently ill [the unconditioned response], a food that was eaten that day can become associated with being ill [unconditioned response] such that the specific food becomes a conditioned stimulus for feeling ill [conditioned response]. Taste aversions are unique in that it requires only one pairing of the CS and UCS, taste aversions are extremely difficult to condition to stimuli other than orally ingested substances (biological preparedness or signal relations), and the UCR can follow the CS by up to many hours later. 8. Explain and provide an example for stimulus discrimination. [2 marks] - Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus., e.g., A dog gets excited when he hears his owner’s car pull in the driveway, but does not get very excited when a stranger’s car pulls in the driveway. 9. Explain and give examples for negative reinforcement and negative punishment. [4 marks] - Negative reinforcement is when a negative or aversive stimulus is taken away by some behavior thereby strengthening the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is taking an aspirin to reduce a headache will increase the likelihood of future aspirin taking. - Negative punishment is when a positive or pleasant stimulus is removed following some behavior in order to weaken the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child stays out past curfew so the parent takes away their TV for a week. L0201 M2-4 Test 2 2006 2. Explain sensation in the context of the human visual system. [2 marks] - photoreceptors (or rods and cones) in the back of the eye sense electromagnetic radiation in the visible white light spectrum. 3. Describe the three dimensions of color. [3marks] •Hue is the apparent color of an object (blue) •Brightness is the intensity of a color •Saturation is the purity of the color 4. How do sounds get processed into neural impulses in humans? [4 marks] - changes in air pressure vibrating molecules are collected by the Pinna or external ear and sent to the middle ear where the tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) turn the large movements with little force into small movement with greater force. These vibrations are carried to the oval window to the cochlea or inner ear. Here the auditory nerve cells (hair cells) in the basilar membrane respond to the place and frequency of the waves. 5. Why is the olfactory system unique among human senses? [2 marks] - it is the only sense that does not relay information through the thalamus - rather, olfactory nerve cells or cilia synapse directly with the olfactory bulb at the base of the brain 6. Describe the types of brain waves found during the five different stages of sleep [5 marks] Stage 1: theta waves Stage 2: theta waves with K complexes and spindles Stage 3: mostly theta and delta waves (slow wave sleep) appear Stage 4: mostly delta waves REM: beta waves present and brain waves resemble waking activity 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid, fear-evoking dreams that occur during REM sleep? [1 mark] - Nightmares 7. What is lucid dreaming? List two ways to increase your chances of having a lucid dream. [3 marks] - Lucid dreaming is the state of being consciously awake and aware that you are asleep and dreaming, while you are asleep and dreaming. - two ways to improve the chances of having a lucid dream are dream journaling and reality testing 8. Describe an example of classical conditioning. [4 marks] - Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response [salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials. Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus, as it alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the unconditioned response. 9. What is biological preparedness and what phenomena does it account for? [4 marks] - Preparedness involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways or to certain things and not others. Preparedness explains why certain phobias are easier to condition than others (e.g., snakes vs. rabbits), why taste aversions only occur with novel foods and will not be conditioned using visual or auditory neutral stimuli, and why instinctive drift can interfere with the operant conditioning process. 10. Describe two difficulties that may arise when learning is done using punishment. [2 marks] - Learner may not understand which operant behavior is being punished - Learner may come to fear the teacher, rather than learn an association between the action and punishment (then avoids the teacher) - Punishment may not undo existing rewards for a behavior - Using punishment when the teacher is angry - Punitive aggression may lead to future aggression L6001 M 6-8 Test 2 2006 1. In terms of thresholds, describe the change from hearing nothing, to hearing something, to hearing it get louder. [3 marks] - An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment at least 50% of the time. - the next threshold comes at the Just Noticeable Difference which is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect. 2. Explain the transduction of light in the human visual system. [4 marks] •Light travels through the retina to impinge on photoreceptors at the back of the eye –Light bleaches a pigment contained within the photoreceptors: •Bleaching leads to a graded receptor potential that eventually produces an action potential in the ganglion cell 3. What are the three classes of human skin receptors? [3 marks] –Touch: physical contact of objects with the skin –Temperature of objects –Pain: destruction of skin tissue 4. Briefly describe what was discussed in class regarding the neurological substrates of consciousness. [4 marks] -Consciousness is distributed widely throughout the brain - Midbrain (thalamus) –Hindbrain (pons, reticular formation, medulla oblongata) are important for arousal and for sleep and damage to the reticular formation can lead to coma –Prefrontal cortex is key for conscious control of information processing 5. Describe the Stroop task and state which part of a subject’s brain is most activated while performing this task. [4 marks] - subjects are asked to identify the color of a word. The words are names of colors other than the actual color of the word e.g., R-E-D written in green color - the right brain dominant color detection areas of the brain receive interference from the language processing areas of the brain dominant in the left hemisphere and it thus takes longer to identify the color - this task is associated with activation of the dorso-lateral pre-frontal cortex 6. What is Insomnia and what is the most common type of insomnia? [2 marks] - insomnia is the inability to maintain or achieve sleep - the most common type of insomnia is difficulty falling asleep (it is often stress related) 7. Describe Pavlov’s original example of classical conditioning. [3 marks] - Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response [salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials. Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus, as it alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the unconditioned response. 8. What is the best temporal order for classical conditioning and what is the worst temporal order? What classical conditioning situation is an exception to the above general rule? (3 marks) – Best conditioning: CS immediately precedes the UCS (forward) – Worst conditioning: UCS immediately precedes CS (backward) - This does not apply to conditioned taste aversions where the CS precedes the UCS by many hours 9. Explain and give examples for positive punishment and positive reinforcement. [4 marks] - Positive punishment is when a negative or aversive event follows a behavior and weakens the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is a child who gets scolded for throwing food. - Positive reinforcement is when a positive or pleasant stimulus follows some behavior and strengthens the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child does her homework she gets praise from her mother or gets a gold star from her teacher increasing the likelihood of doing homework again in the future. L0101 W 2-4 Test 2 2005 10. Give a definition for, and an example of, sensation. [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment. An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear. 11. What is a Just Noticeable Difference? [2 marks] - A JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect. 12. Explain how light is converted into electrochemical impulses in the brain. [3 marks] - Light travels through the pupil to the retina where it contacts the photoreceptors (rods and cones) and bleaches a pigment in the photoreceptors, which creates graded receptor potentials that eventually lead (through bipolar and amacrine cells) to action potentials in the ganglion cells. 13. Explain the Young-Hemholtz theory of color vision and provide two examples of phenomena that could not be explained by this theory. [4 marks] - The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths (red, green, and blue). This theory does not account for why afterimages of objects that are stared at, are seen in complimentary colors. It also does not account for why dichromats have trouble distinguishing either red from green or blue from yellow. [it does not account for why people prefer to use four colours (red, green, blue, and yellow) to describe different color shades. 14. Brain waves that occur when relaxed and calm are called _____________ waves. [1 mark] - alpha 15. Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the unconscious. [3 marks] - Unconscious processes are rapid and efficient, so we can act without having to consciously think and analyze the situation. Also, unconscious processes can operate simultaneously with conscious processes so we can do more than one thing at a time, e.g., think about psychology while driving a car. Finally, the unconscious will operate in the absence of consciousness, such as when we are sleeping. 16. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by episodes of intense panic that occur during deep sleep early in the night? [1 mark] - Night Terrors 17. Explain the Cognitive view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The Cognitive view believes that dreams are constructed from the daily issues faced by the dreamer and that much of what we dream about is simply processing the information that we have attended to throughout the day. This view does not see dreams as particularly insightful or meaningful, rather, dreams are simply a way to clean out the brains memory storage units to make room for new information to be processed the next day. [I will accept the Problem-solving view of dreams here also] 18. Explain how a conditioned taste aversion develops and state why it is unique from other types of classical conditioning. [4 marks] - If someone gets viral gastroenteritis or “stomach flu” [the unconditioned stimulus] and becomes violently ill [the unconditioned response], a food that was eaten that day can become associated with being ill [unconditioned response] such that the specific food becomes a conditioned stimulus for feeling ill [conditioned response]. Taste aversions are unique in that it requires only one pairing of the CS and UCS, taste aversions are extremely difficult to condition to stimuli other than orally ingested substances (biological preparedness or signal relations), and the UCR can follow the CS by up to many hours later. 19. What is observational learning? [2 marks] - Observational learning occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Essentially, it involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another’s conditioning. 20. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative reinforcement. [4 marks] - Negative reinforcement is when a negative or aversive stimulus is taken away by some behavior thereby strengthening the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is taking an aspirin to reduce a headache will increase the likelihood of future aspirin taking. Positive reinforcement is when a positive or pleasant stimulus follows some behavior and strengthens the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child does her homework she gets praise from her mother or gets a gold star from her teacher increasing the likelihood of doing homework again in the future. L0201 M2-4 Test 2 2005 8. What is the difference between sensation and perception? [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment, whereas perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. 2. What is an absolute threshold? [2 marks] - An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment at least 50% of the time. 3. Describe the main visual pathway in the brain. [3 marks] - Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to the thalamus, which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex. Here the main pathway splits in two directions to the “what” and “where" pathways. 4. Explain the Opponent-Process theory of color vision. What areas of the brain are associated with this theory? [4 marks] - Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors: red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white. Evidence for this theory is found in ganglion cells in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex that respond in opposite ways to red versus green and blue versus yellow. For example, some ganglion cells are excited by green and inhibited by yellow and vice versa. 5. Brain waves that occur during REM sleep are called ______________ waves. [1 mark] - beta 6. Identify and explain three theories concerning the function of sleep. [3 marks] [any three] - Memory consolidation: we sleep in order to consolidate our experiences during the day into our long term memory. Energy conservation: we sleep in order to lower our core body temperature to conserve energy for activity in the day. Preservation from predators: we sleep to lessen the chances of being out and about when predators may be around. Restoring bodily functions: we sleep to rest and maintain our cognitive and perceptual-motor skills 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid, fear-evoking dreams that occur during REM sleep? [1 mark] - Nightmares 8. Explain the Psychoanalytic view of dreaming. [4 marks] - This view believes that dreams are a window into the unconscious, where we can express our deepest, darkest desires without fear of scorn, ridicule, or punishment, and fulfill wishes that cannot otherwise be fulfilled in waking life. This view also believes that dreams contain important information from the unconscious that need to be transferred to the conscious mind and that dream information is often expressed in symbolic language that must be interpreted to find the true meaning. 9. 9. Describe the process of classical conditioning using an example from your own life. [4 marks] - Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response [salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials. Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus, as it alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the unconditioned response. 10. What is the Law of Effect? [2 marks] - Behavior is controlled by its consequences such that any response that is rewarded or reinforced, will be more likely than if not reinforced, to occur again in the future. 11. Explain the difference between fixed ratio and variable interval reinforcement schedules. Which works best and explain why? [4 marks] - In a fixed ratio schedule an organism is reinforced at a constant rate, such as every third response or every fifth response. In a variable interval schedule a different amount of time passes before each reinforcer, such as after 2 minutes, then after 1 min. then after 3 min. (average 2 min.) In general, ratio schedules produce more rapid responding, however, variable schedules produce steadier rates of responding and greater resistance to extinction. L6001 M 6-8 Test 2 2005 8. Give a definition and an example of perception. [2 marks] - Perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. An example would be looking at a picture and perceiving what the picture is about and what it means or hearing a sound and perceiving it to be the telephone ringing, meaning someone is calling you. 9. What is a Weber fraction? [2 marks] - Weber’s law states that the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus. This constant proportion is called a Weber fraction. 10. Explain the structure and function of the “what” and “where” pathways in the visual system. [3 marks] - After information is processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are then shuttled along two pathways through the secondary visual cortex. The first pathway, called the parvocellular or “what” pathway, travels to the temporal lobes where information is processed regarding the color, form, and texture of objects. The second pathway, called the magnocelluar or “where” pathway, leads to the parietal lobes where information is processed regarding the motion and depth of objects. 11. What are negative color afterimages and why are they significant to the trichromatic theory of color vision? [4 marks] - When you stare at an object for a long time it will imprint the image onto the retina so that when you then stare at a blank space you can see an afterimage of what you were staring at, however, the afterimage is seen in complementary colors, which are the colors that would mix with the original color to form gray. The phenomena of negative afterimages cannot be accounted for using the trichromatic theory of color vision. 12. Brain waves that occur during deep sleep are called ______________ waves. [1 mark] - delta 13. Define and give an example of subliminal perception. [3 marks] - Subliminal perception occurs when we sense and perceive stimuli that do not reach the threshold of conscious awareness. For example, stimuli flashed on a computer screen for less than 33 milliseconds can influence behavior but when subjects are asked if they saw anything, they report that they did not. [Elderly people walk slower when subliminally primed with a negative stereotype about the elderly being slow, OR people state that they prefer a certain geometric shape, or character, or nonsense word, when it is subliminally flashed to them before being asked to pick their favorite from a group.] 14. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by nighttime awakenings brought on by the cessation of breathing during sleep? [1 mark] - Sleep Apnea 8. Explain the Evolutionary view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The evolutionary view believes that dreams evolved as a way for humans and animals to rehearse behavioral patterns to threatening stimuli without actually having to confront the dangerous situation in real life. In essence, dreaming is a virtual reality threat simulation exercise that allows us to practice behaviors that will help us in real life emergencies without being exposed to any real threat. 9. What is biological preparedness and what phenomena does it account for? [4 marks] - Preparedness involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways or to certain things and not others. Preparedness explains why certain phobias are easier to condition than others (e.g., snakes vs. rabbits), why taste aversions only occur with novel foods and will not be conditioned using visual or auditory neutral stimuli, and why instinctive drift can interfere with the operant conditioning process. 12. 10. Explain the terms Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery, as they pertain to classical conditioning. [2 marks] - Extinction refers to the weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response. 13. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative punishment. [4 marks] - Positive punishment is when a negative or aversive event follows a behavior and weakens the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is a child who gets scolded for throwing food. Negative punishment is when a positive or pleasant stimulus is removed following some behavior in order to weaken the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child stays out past curfew so the parent takes away the TV for a week. L0301 MW 3-4 [K 137] Test 2 2003 9. What is the difference between sensation and perception? [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment, whereas perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. 10. What is an absolute threshold? [2 marks] - An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment at least 50% of the time. 11. Explain how light is converted into electrochemical impulses in the brain. [3 marks] - Light travels through the pupil to the retina where it contacts the photoreceptors (rods and cones) and bleaches a pigment in the photoreceptors, which creates graded receptor potentials that eventually lead (through bipolar and amacrine cells) to action potentials in the ganglion cells. 12. Explain the Young-Hemholtz theory of color vision and provide two examples of phenomena that could not be explained by this theory. [4 marks] - The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths (red, green, and blue). This theory does not account for why afterimages of objects that are stared at, are seen in complimentary colors. It also does not account for why dichromats have trouble distinguishing either red from green or blue from yellow. [it does not account for why people prefer to use four colours (red, green, blue, and yellow) to describe different color shades]. 5. Brain waves that occur during alert wakefulness are called ____________ waves. [1 mark] - beta 6. Identify and explain three attentional processes. [3 marks] - When focusing our attention we can orient ourselves to what is important in our environment by concentrating on important stimuli and ignoring unimportant stimuli. We can also control the content of our consciousness by determining what we think about and finally we can maintain alertness to be extra aware of our surroundings. 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid, fear-evoking dreams that occur during REM sleep? [1 mark] - Nightmares 8. Explain the Psychoanalytic view of dreaming. [4 marks] - This view believes that dreams are a window into the unconscious, where we can express our deepest, darkest desires without fear of scorn, ridicule, or punishment, and fulfill wishes that cannot otherwise be fulfilled in waking life. This view also believes that dreams contain important information from the unconscious that needs to be transferred to the conscious mind and that dream information is often expressed in symbolic language that must be interpreted to find the true meaning. 9. 9. Describe the process of classical conditioning using an example from your own life. [4 marks] - Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response [salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials. Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus as it alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the unconditioned response. 10. What is the Law of Effect? [2 marks] - Behavior is controlled by its consequences such that any response that is rewarded or reinforced, will be more likely than if not reinforced, to occur again in the future. 11. Explain the difference between fixed ratio and variable interval reinforcement schedules. Which works best? Explain why. [4 marks] - In a fixed ratio schedule an organism is reinforced at a constant rate, such as every third response or every fifth response. In a variable interval schedule a different amount of time passes before each reinforcer, such as after 2 minutes, then after 1 min. then after 3 min. (average 2 min.) In general, ratio schedules produce more rapid responding, however, variable schedules produce steadier rates of responding and greater resistance to extinction. L0101 MW 11-12 [room 2072] Test 2 2003 1. Give a definition for, and an example of, sensation. [2 marks] - Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment. An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear. 2. What is a Just Noticeable Difference? [2 marks] - A JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect. 3. Describe the main visual pathway in the brain. [3 marks] - Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to the thalamus, which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex. Here the main pathway splits in two directions to the “what” and “where pathways”. 4. Explain the Opponent-Process theory of color vision. What areas of the brain are associated with this theory? [4 marks] - Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors: red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white. Evidence for this theory is found in ganglion cells in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex that respond in opposite ways to red versus green and blue versus yellow. For example, some ganglion cells are excited by green and inhibited by yellow and vice versa. 5. Brain waves that occur when relaxed and calm are called _____________ waves. [1 mark] - alpha 6. Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the unconscious. [3 marks] - Unconscious processes are rapid and efficient, so we can act without having to consciously think and analyze the situation. Also, unconscious processes can operate simultaneously with conscious processes so we can do more than one thing at a time, e.g., think about psychology while driving a car. Finally, the unconscious will operate in the absence of consciousness, such as when we are sleeping. 7. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by episodes of intense panic that occur during deep sleep early in the night? [1 mark] - Night Terrors 8. Explain the Cognitive view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The Cognitive view believes that dreams are constructed from the daily issues faced by the dreamer and that much of what we dream about is simply processing the information that we have attended to throughout the day. This view does not see dreams as particularly insightful or meaningful, rather, dreams are simply a way to clean out the brains memory storage units to make room for new information to be processed the next day. [I will accept the Problem-solving view of dreams here also] 9. 9. Explain the terms Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery, as they pertain to classical conditioning. [4 marks] - Acquisition refers to repeated pairings of an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus that converts the neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response. Extinction refers to the weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response. 10. 10. What is instinctive drift? [2 marks] - Instinctive drift occurs when an animal’s innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes. 11. 11. Explain and give examples for positive and negative punishment. [4 marks] - Positive punishment is when a negative or aversive event follows a behavior and weakens the tendency for that behavior to occur again. An example is a child who gets scolded for throwing their food. Negative punishment is when a positive or pleasant stimulus is removed following some behavior in order to weaken the tendency of that behavior to occur again. An example is when a child stays out past curfew so the parent takes away their TV for a week. L0201 TR 1-2 [K 137] Test 2 2003 15. Give a definition and an example of perception. [2 marks] - Perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of sensory input. An example would be looking at a picture and perceiving what the picture is about and what it means or hearing a sound and perceiving it to be the telephone ringing, meaning someone is calling you. 16. What is a Weber fraction? [2 marks] - Weber’s law states that the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus. This constant proportion is called a Weber fraction. 17. Explain the structure and function of the “what” and “where” pathways in the visual system. [3 marks] - After information is processed in the primary visual cortex signals are then shuttled along two pathways through the secondary visual cortex. The first pathway, called the parvocellular or “what” pathway, travels to the temporal lobes where information is processed regarding the color, form, and texture of objects. The second pathway, called the magnocellular or “where” pathway, leads to the parietal lobes where information is processed regarding the motion and depth of objects. 18. What are negative color afterimages and why are they significant to the trichromatic theory of color vision? [4 marks] - When you stare at an object for a long time it will imprint the image onto the retina so that when you then stare at a blank space you can see an afterimage of what you were staring at, however, the afterimage is seen in complementary colors, which are the colors that would mix with the original color to form gray. The phenomena of negative afterimages cannot be accounted for using the trichromatic theory of color vision. 19. Brain waves that occur during deep sleep are called ______________ waves. [1 mark] - delta 20. Define and give an example of subliminal perception. [3 marks] - Subliminal perception occurs when we sense and perceive stimuli that do not reach the threshold of conscious awareness. For example, stimuli flashed on a computer screen for less than 33 milliseconds can influence behavior but when subjects are asked if they saw anything, they report that they did not. [Elderly people walk slower when subliminally primed with a negative stereotype about the elderly being slow, OR people state that they prefer a certain geometric shape, or character, or nonsense word, when it is subliminally flashed to them before being asked to pick their favorite from a group.] 21. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by nighttime awakenings brought on by the cessation of breathing during sleep? [1 mark] - Sleep Apnea 22. Explain the Biological view of dreaming. [4 marks] - The Biological view states that dreams represent the attempt of the cortex to interpret the random neural firing of the brain during sleep and that any images or themes found in our dreams are merely random occurrences. This theory, called the activation-synthesis model, believes that dreams are not particularly meaningful and it downplays the importance of emotional factors influencing the content of our dreams. 23. What is biological preparedness and what phenomena does it account for? [4 marks] - Preparedness involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways or to certain things and not others. Preparedness explains why certain phobias are easier to condition than others (e.g., snakes vs. rabbits), why taste aversions only occur with novel foods and will not be conditioned using visual or auditory neutral stimuli, and why instinctive drift can interfere with the operant conditioning process. 24. What is stimulus generalization and discrimination? [2 marks] - Stimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus and discrimination is when the organism does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. 11. Explain the difference between variable ratio and fixed interval reinforcement schedules. Which works best and why? [4 marks] - In a fixed interval schedule an organism is reinforced at a cons
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