- Believed that internal mental events could not be studied scientifically and therefore there was no reason to
- Believed that environmental factors mold behavior but also acknowledged that the biological endowment
- Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and hey tend not to repeat responses that
lead to neutral or negative outcomes.
- All behavior is determined by external stimuli, and no actions are a result of conscious decisions.
The Humanists Revolt
- Psychoanalytic theory criticized for its belief that behavior is dominated by primitive sexual urges and
behaviorism was criticized for its preoccupation with the study of simple animal behavior.
- New school of thought called “humanism”
- Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their
freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Carl Rogers/ Abraham Maslow- human behavior is governed primarily by each individuals sense of life or self
concept (which animals lack).
Believed that to understand people’s behavior you must understand their personal growth.
-Greatest contribution of humanists to psychology has been their treatment of psychological problems and
Psychology Comes of Age As a Profession
Applied Psychology- the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems.
Clinical psychology- branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological
problems and disorders.
- Clinical psychology enlightened when World War 2 started for soldiers to treat their psychological scars.
- Researchers complaining that not enough study of psychology is going to the scientific portion and moreover
to clinical psychology.
- New organization formed in 1988 called the American Psychological Society (APS) which was to study the
science of psychology.
Psychology Returns to its Roots
- Psychologists these days are showing more interest in consciousness now referred to as “cognition”) and the
physiological bases of behavior.
Cognition- refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
- cognitive theorists argue that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand behavior.
- Electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals
(James Olds 1956)
- Right and left halves of the brain are specialized to handle different types of mental tasks (Roger Sperry 1981)
Psychology Broadens its Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity