chp 6 learning.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Chp. 6 Learning  Learning: any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience  Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects or situation and are often the result of another leaning process termed classical conditioning  Conditioning: involves learning connections between events that occur in an organism’s environment Classical conditioning  Defin: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus  Pavlovian conditioning  Pavlov was one of those who was responsible for turning psychology from research focusing on subjective accounts of experience, introspection, to a more objective, rigorous, scientific approach  His work showed how stimuli in the external world controlled our actions and behaviour  He de-emphasized the mind, and mentalistic accounts of behaviour, and shoed how learning was under the influence of experience and that “associations could be built up in consciousness  “psychic reflexes” = conditioned reflex  Subjects: dogs that were restrained in harnesses in an experimental chamber  Their saliva was collected by means of a surgically impanted tube in the salivary gland  Dogs accustomed to the procedure would start salivating before the meat powder was presented (e.g. the dog would salivate in response to a clicking sound made by the device that was used to present the meat powder)  What was so significant about a dog salivating when a tone was presented? • Tone (natural stimulus: did not originally produce the response of salivation, but through the process, the tone acquired the capacity to trigger the
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