Study Guides (248,366)
Canada (121,505)
Psychology (825)
PSY100Y5 (284)
Dax Urbszat (197)

Short Answer Test 2 full.doc

41 Pages
Unlock Document

Dax Urbszat

L0101 M24 Test 2 20071What is the difference between sensation and perception 2 marksSensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment whereas perception is the selection organization and subjective interpretation of sensory input2 What is an absolute threshold 2 marks An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment 50 of the time3Describe the main visual pathway in the brain3 marks Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to the thalamus which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus LGN Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex Here the main pathway splits in two directions to the what and where pathways4What are the three classes of human skin receptors 3 marksTouch physical contact of objects with the skinTemperature of objectsPain destruction of skin tissue 5Describe the types of brain waves found during the five different stages of sleep5 marksStage 1 theta wavesStage 2 theta waves with K complexes and spindlesStage 3 mostly theta and delta waves slow wave sleep appearStage 4 mostly delta wavesREM beta waves present and brain waves resemble waking activity 6What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid fearevoking dreams that occur during REM sleep 1 mark aNightmares 6 Describe the Stroop task and state which part of a subjects brain is most activated while performing this task 4 markssubjects are asked to identify the color of a word The words are names of colors other than the actual color of the word eg RED written in green color the right brain dominant color detection areas of the brain receive interference from the language processingareas of the brain dominant in the left hemisphere and it thus takes longer to identify the colorthis task is associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 8Describe the process of classical conditioning using an example from your own life 4 marks Pair an unconditioned stimulus meat powder that elicits an unconditioned response salivation with a neutral stimulus a bell tone over a period of several trials Eventually the neutral stimulus bell tone will become a conditioned stimulus as it alone will elicit a conditioned response salivation the same or similar to the unconditioned response9Explain and give examples for positive and negative reinforcement 4 marks Negative reinforcement is when a negative or aversive stimulus is taken away by some behavior thereby strengthening the tendency for that behavior to occur again An example is taking an aspirin to reduce a headache will increase the likelihood of future aspirin taking Positive reinforcement is when a positive or pleasant stimulus follows some behavior and strengthens the tendency of that behavior to occur again An example is when a child does her homework she gets praise from her mother or gets a gold star from her teacher increasing the likelihood of doing homework again in the future10Define and give an example of escape learning 2 marks this is a form of negative reinforcement where you escape a feared or unpleasant stimulus and when you get away you feel so much betterL0201 T 24 Test 2 20071Give a definition for and an example of sensation 2 marksSensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear2What is a Just Noticeable Difference 1 markA JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect3Explain how light is converted into electrochemical impulses in the brain 3 marksLight travels through the pupil to the retina where it contacts the photoreceptors rods and cones and bleaches a pigment in the photoreceptors which creates graded receptor potentials that eventually lead through bipolar and amacrine cells to action potentials in the ganglion cells4Explain the YoungHemholtz trichromatic theory of color vision and provide two examples of phenomena that could not be explained by this theory 4 marksThe human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths red green and blue This theory does not account for why afterimages of objects that are stared at are seen in complimentary colors It also does not account for why dichromats have trouble distinguishing either red from green or blue from yellow It does not account for why people prefer to use four colours red green blue and yellow to describe different color shades 5Brain waves that occur when we are relaxed and calm are calledwaves 1 markalpha6Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the unconscious 3 marksUnconscious processes are rapid and efficient so we can act without having to consciously think and analyze the situation Also unconscious processes can operate simultaneously with conscious processes so we can do more than one thing at a time eg think about psychology while driving a car Finally the unconscious will operate in the absence of consciousness such as when we are sleeping 7What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by episodes of intense panic and at what stage of sleep are they usually found 2 markNight Terrors during slow wave delta sleep stage 48Explain the Cognitive view of dreaming 4 marksThe Cognitive view believes that dreams are constructed from the daily issues faced by the dreamer and that much of what we dream about is simply processing the information that we have attended to throughout the day This view does not see dreams as particularly insightful or meaningful rather dreams are simply a way to clean out the brains memory storage units to make room for new information to be processed the next day I will accept the Problemsolving view of dreams here also9Explain how a conditioned taste aversion develops and state why it is unique from other types of classical conditioning 4 marksIf someone gets viral gastroenteritis or stomach flu the unconditioned stimulus and becomes violently ill the unconditioned response a food that was eaten that day can become associated with being ill unconditioned response such that the specific food becomes a conditioned stimulus for feeling ill conditioned response Taste aversions are unique in that it requires only one pairing of the CS and UCS taste aversions are extremely difficult to condition to stimuli other than orally ingested substances biological preparedness or signal relations and the UCR can follow the CS by up to many hours later10What is observational learning 2 marksObservational learning occurs when an organisms responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models Essentially it involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing anothers conditioning 11Explain the difference between fixed ratio and variable interval reinforcement schedules Which works best and explain why 4 marksIn a fixed ratio schedule an organism is reinforced at a constant rate such as every third response or every fifth response In a variable interval schedule a different amount of time passes before each reinforcer such as after 2 minutes then after 1 min then after 3 min average 2 minIn general ratio schedules produce more rapid responding however variable schedules produce steadier rates of responding and greater resistance to extinctionL6001 M 68 Test 2 20071Give a definition and an example of perception 2 marksPerception is the selection organization and subjective interpretation of sensory input An example would be looking at a picture and perceiving what the picture is about and what it means or hearing a sound and perceiving it to be the telephone ringing meaning someone is calling you
More Less

Related notes for PSY100Y5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.