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Midterm

Short Answer Test 4 full.doc

32 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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2008L0101 M 241Explain the effects of stimulation and Lesioning in both the lateral and ventricular hypothalamus 2 marks 12 mark each stimulation of the lateral region induces eating whereas lesions produce starvation stimulation of the ventricular region inhibits eating whereas lesions induce overeating2What is the evolutionary explanation for gender differences in mate preferences 4 marksthroughout evolution men have looked for women with good reproductive potential and thus have traditionally valued youthfulness allowing for more reproductive years and attractiveness which is a sign of health and fertility in their partners whereas women have looked for mates that could provide material resources and protect the family Thus women traditionally place more emphasis on intelligence income and status in mate selection3List the 5 basic emotional states discussed in class 3 marks 12 mark each andmark for getting all 5anger fear happiness sadness disgust surprise4Positive emotions are related most strongly to activation ofsystems whereas negative emotions are most strongly related to activation ofsystems 2 marksdopamine norepinephrine5Explain the concept of critical periods and provide examples 3 marksthe brain is set to acquire a function during a limited period of time if key experiences do not occur during a critical time period the function may not develop normally or at allthe brain is also more vulnerable to certain teratogens environmental stimuli at some critical periods as opposed to other times where exposure is not as serious eg Genie was isolated till age 13 and thus never fully developed language skills eg measles can cause mental retardation if contracted during certain fetal periods6According to Piaget define object permanence and state the stage of cognitive development where it is first found 2 marksobject permanence refers to the realization that an object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen according to Piaget it develops at the end of the sensorimotor period7In which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development do we find right and wrong being determined by what is punished 1 markpreconventional stage8What are Eriksons first and last stages of personality development2 marks Trust vs mistrustIntegrity vs despair 9 Identify and describe Freuds three structures of personality 6 marksId based on the pleasure principle unconscious desires wishes and instincts Ego based on the reality principle struggles to satisfy Id and Superego and deal with the reality of the world Superego based on the morality principle keeps Id in check and tries to establish a sense of right and wrong based on society family and internal morals10Explain the concept of reciprocal determinism 2 marksinternal mental events external environmental events and overt behavior all interact and influence one another in a persons subjective experience of the world11List the Big Five factors of personality traits 3 marks 12 mark each andmark for getting all 5Openness to experienceConscientiousnessExtroversionAgreeablenessNeuroticismL0201 T 241What are some of the gender differences found in patterns of sexual activity and how do evolutionary psychologists explain them 3 marksmales generally show a greater interest in sex initiate sex more often have more sexual partners and engage in more sex with partners they barely know than women because males can have thousands of children it is in their best interest for reproductive success to have as many partners as possible whereas females are very limited in the number of children they can have thus they must be very selective about who they mate with2Identify and give an example of the 3 components of emotions 3 marksphysiological arousal eg increased heart rate galvanic skin response autonomic activity etc subjective experience eg fear of pain or death or anticipation of pleasure etc behavioral expression eg scream cry laugh make a facial expression etc3List 3 common methodologies used in developmental research 3 markscrosssectional studies longitudinal studies sequential studies4List the 3 types of infantcaregiver attachment discussed in the lectures 3 marks 1 secure 2 anxiousambivalent 3 avoidant5According to Piaget define conservation and state the stage of cognitive development where children learn this ability 2 marksConservation is the understanding that the basic properties of an object are constant even if the object changes shape Piaget believed that children mastered conservation in the concrete operational period6Explain Piagets concepts of assimilation and accommodation 2 marksAssimilation involves interpreting new information in light of an old or existing schema Accomodation is the process by which old schemas are modified to fit new situations and information7What is Eriksons fifth stage of personality development 1 markidentity vs confusion8 Define and provide an example for the following defense mechanisms Projection Reaction Formation and Displacement 6 marksProjection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to others eg you believe that your friend is mad at you when really it is you who are mad at your friendReaction Formation a person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse eg a person attracted to the same sex may express open hostility to homosexualsDisplacement diverting emotional reactions from their original source to a substitute target eg a man who is mad at his boss comes home and yells at his wife9According to Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy list three positive and five negative emotions that would be considered inappropriate 4 marks 12 mark eachPositive grandiosity rage maniaNegative depression anxiety despair selfpity feelings of worthlessness10List the Big Five factors of personality traits 3 marks 12 mark each andmark for getting all 5Openness to experienceConscientiousnessExtroversionAgreeablenessNeuroticismL6001 M 681Describe in order the first 3 levels of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 3 marks
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