L0101 M 2-4
1. Describe what a Clinical Psychologist does and give an example of an experiment that might be
conducted by a Clinical Psychologist. (4 marks)
- a clinical psychologist assesses, diagnoses, and treats mental disorders, doing individual and/or group
therapy with patients; they often work in hospitals or have and/or have a private practice
- e.g., a researcher is looking at the outcome of drug therapy vs. psychotherapy vs. combined on treatment of
patients with depression
2. What is Psychology? (3 marks)
- Psychology is the scientific study of behavior.
anything an animal or human does, feels, or thinks.
- Psychology is a science firmly based in empirical research.
- Psychology has broad application.
3. Briefly describe the SQ3R reading method. (3 marks)
- Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review
- Read the table of contents to prime your brain with the main concepts of the readings, then make a
question out of the headings for each section
- Read the section, then answer the question out loud, (review the section if you cant) and then write your
4. Explain what makes a study an experimental study? (2 marks)
-An experiment is a controlled study that uses random assignment to control for all variables, except the
independent variable being manipulated by the researcher. Random assignment allows for causal inferences to
be made between the independent and dependant variables.
5. What is the difference between a correlational study, an observational study, and a case study? (4
-Acorrelation measures the strength and direction of associations between two variables.Acorrelational study
suffers from the problems of directionality and third variable confounds which prevent researchers from
making any causal inferences. Anaturalistic observation study observes phenomena in their natural
environment with as little interference as possible.Acase study is the examination and observation of only one
subject. None of these methods of research allow us to make causal inferences regarding relationships between
6. List and briefly explain the four characteristics of good Psychological research.
- Atheoretical framework that systematically organizes observations and generates hypotheses
- Astandardized procedure that is the same for all subjects except manipulated variables
- Generalizability from the sample to the population and from the lab to the real world - Objective measurement with measures that are both reliable and valid
7. Describe three limbic system functions and name the anatomical area associated with each function.
- Septal area (or septum I would accept) is responsible for pleasure and pain relief
- The amygdala is associated with the learning and recognition of fear
- The hippocampus is involved in memory consolidation and possible storage
8. Name the four lobes of the cerebrum and the corresponding information processing cortex located in
each lobe. (4 marks)
1. Frontal lobe motor cortex [1/2 mark for the lobe and mark for the cortex]
2. Temporal lobe auditory cortex
3. Occipital lobe primary visual cortex
4. Parietal lobe - somatosensory cortex
9. What functions appear to be dominant in the right hemisphere of most people?
- non-linguistic functions including recognition of faces, places, sounds
- I would also accept spatial location, copying drawings, color recognition, or fear recognition
10. What are organizational effects of hormones? Please provide an example.
- organization effects are permanent changes in the structure and function of the anatomy, e.g., testosterone in
the womb creates male genitalia
1. Explain the main ideas behind the Psychoanalytic perspective of Psychology.
- The psychoanalytic perspective views humans as instinct driven creatures that have very little control and
awareness of the processes that regulate human behaviour. Freud was the founder of Psychoanalysis which is
the first type of psychotherapy, and he believed that we could cure mental disorders by discovering
unconscious conflicts and traumas and processing our emotional reactions and behaviours regarding the
2. Describe three things that a Social Psychologist might study. (3 marks)
[any three of the following]
- group dynamics, interpersonal behaviours, prejudice, attitudes, conformity, aggression, attraction, bystander
apathy, obedience, religion, cults, etc 3. What is the placebo effect? (3 marks)
- When someone shows improvement in their condition or symptoms simply because they believe that they are
receiving some kind of treatment, when in reality they are not getting any real treatment at all.
4. What is the difference between Clinical and Counseling Psychology? (3 marks)
- they are basically the same in that you are assessing and treating patients with certain issues in functioning,
however, clinical involves actual diagnoses and treatment of validated mental disorders and usually the
therapist will have a clinical psychology degree, whereas, counseling is usually for higher functioning
individuals, can be for many areas of daily functioning (family, divorce, marriage, victim) and can be done by
therapists with a Masters or Bachelors degree in psychology, social work, education, or other.
5. What are implementation intentions? (1 mark)
- explicitly stating your intentions to do something by writing down when, where, and how you will do this
thing (said to improve the likelihood that you will actually do the task)
6.According to the lecture, what is generalizability? (2 marks)
- a sample that is representative of the population of interest so you can generalize the results of your sample to
- a procedure that is relevant to the outside world (ecological and external validity) so we can generalize the
data obtained in the laboratory to the real world
7. What is the difference between a correlational study, an observational study, and a case study? (5
-Acorrelation measures the strength and direction of associations between two variables. -Acorrelational
study suffers from the problems of directionality and third variable confounds which prevent researchers from
making any causal inferences.
-Anaturalistic study observes phenomena in their natural environment with as little interference as possible.
-Acase study is the examination and observation of only one subject.
- None of these methods of research allow us to make causal inferences regarding relationships between
8. What functions seem to be controlled by the amygdala? (3 marks)
- learning of fear or threatening stimuli and recognition of fear and perhaps the amygdala is also involved in
the feeling of other emotions
9. What senses and which processes in the human mind and body are the parietal lobes most responsible
for? (3 marks)
- the parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex, receiving input from our sense of touch, and are most
responsible for functions like touch, spatial orientation, and non-verbal thinking.
10. List the four main components of most neurons. (2marks)
[1/2 mark each] - dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons
11. List the main areas of functioning associated with the neurotransmitter acetycholine and identify an
acetycholine antagonist. (2 marks)
- motor control (also accept any two of the following for 1 mark: learning, memory, sleep, dreaming)
- an antagonist would be curare
PSY100 test 1 L6001 M 6-8
1. Briefly explain the Behaviorist perspective of Psychology. (2 marks)
- The Behavioral perspective states that the environment and learning experiences are the most important
influences on human development and behavior and that the science of psychology should be concerned
with only overt, observable behavior.
2. Describe what a Cognitive Psychologist studies and give an example of an experiment that might be
conducted in the area of Cognitive psychology. (4 marks)
- cognitive psychologists study thinking and information processing including memory, higher order thinking,
eyewitness identification, musical processing, etc
e.g., looking at the effects of time on episodic vs. semantic memories
3. What are the differences between the roles of Clinical Psychologists and Experimental Psychologists?
- a clinical psychologist assesses, diagnoses, and treats mental disorders, doing individual and/or
group therapy with patients; they often work in hospitals and/or have a private practice
- an experimental psychologist designs, carries out, and publishes scientific research; they will usually
be found teaching and doing research in Universities or doing research for private corporations
4. What is a correlation? Please include an example of a positive correlation in your explanation. (3
- Acorrelation measures the strength and direction of associations between two variables.
- Apositive correlation occurs when, as the levels of one variable increase so do the levels of the other
e.g., height and weight are positively correlated
5. What two problems exist with trying to make causal inferences from correlational studies? Describe
and give an example of each problem. (4 marks)
1) directionality problem: you often dont know if variableAis causing variable B to change or if variable
B is causing variableAto change, or if there is mutual interaction. E.g., self-esteem and GPAare