____ 1) The fact that researchers focus their attention on findings that are unlikely to have
occurred by chance illustrates which of your text's unifying themes?
A. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
B. Psychology is empirical.
C. Behavior is determined by multiple causes.
D. Psychology is theoretically diverse.
____ 2) Charley tells you that 17 out of the 30 students enrolled in his English class scored
exactly 62 points on the last exam. Conceptually, this is the same as saying
A. the mean for that particular English exam was 62 points
B. the median for that particular English exam was 62 points
C. the standard deviation for that particular English exam was 62 points
D. the mode for that particular English exam was 62 points
____ 3) A psychologist who studies information processing and decision making would probably
be considered a __________ psychologist.
____ 4) Which of the following best characterizes people's understanding of reality?
A. highly objective
B. highly subjective
C. genetically determined
D. a passive process
____ 5) The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A. behaviorism and psychoanalysis
B. functionalism and behaviorism
C. structuralism and functionalism
D. behaviorism and Gestalt psychology
____ 6) In the Featured Study on the use of subliminal self-help tapes, one of the independent
A. the actual purpose of the tape (memory or self-esteem)
B. the group that the subject was assigned to (experimental or control)
C. the actual improvement in memory or self-esteem
D. the subject's beliefs about their personal improvement
____ 7) Nature is to nurture as heredity is to
____ 8) In a study designed to test the effects of a new drug developed to treat Alzheimer's
disease half the patients were given the actual drug while the other half of the patients were
given a placebo (sugar pill). In this study, the experimental group is
A. the patients who show evidence of an improvement in their memory
B. the group who received the actual drug
C. the group who received the placebo
D. the patients who were not included in the study ____ 9) Dr. Hackle has found that no matter how students score on the first midterm, all the
students in her class tend to score between 75% and 80% on her final exam. This suggests
A. the scores on the final exam and the first midterm are negatively correlated
B. the scores on the final exam and the first midterm are positively correlated
C. the scores on the final exam and the first midterm are not very highly correlated
D. Dr. Hackle should change the final so it is more fair to the students who are doing well in her course
____ 10) Theories permit researchers to move from
A. understanding to application
B. concept to description
C. application to control
D. description to understanding
____ 11) A hormone is
A. a chemical secreted into the blood by a gland
B. a brain structure below the hypothalamus
C. a location in the brain where a specific memory is stored
D. none of these
____ 12) We would expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
A. fraternal twins
B. identical twins
D. parents and their children
____ 13) If a key part of the __________ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and
may well starve to death.
____ 14) In evolutionary theory, __________ refers to the reproductive success (number of
descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the
____ 15) By definition, a population
A. is the group of people to whom the conclusion of the study will apply
B. is a subset of the sample
C. consists of those individuals who actually participate in the study
D. is any group that contains more than 100 people or animals
____ 16) Empiricism refers to a
A. "school" of psychology
B. sub-field of psychology
C. position on how information should be acquired
D. theoretical orientation about life
____ 17) Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor
neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
B. dopamine C. serotonin
____ 18) The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is most consistent with
which of the following schools of thought?
____ 19) For John B. Watson, the appropriate subject matter of psychology was
A. animal behavior
B. the unconscious
D. human physiology
____ 20) The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for
judging the worth of foreign ways is called
____ 21) MRI scans of schizophrenic patients have indicated that
A. schizophrenic subjects have higher levels of dopamine than nonschizophrenic subjects
B. schizophrenic subjects have larger ventricles than nonschizophrenic subjects
C. schizophrenic subjects have lower levels of catecholamines than nonschizophrenic subjects
D. the amygdala of schizophrenic subjects is structurally defective relative to nonschizophrenic subjects
____ 22) Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a
particular child is afraid to go to school?
B. descriptive study
C. naturalistic observation
D. case study
____ 23) In computers, the keyboard receives input and passes that information along to the
computer's central processing unit (CPU). In comparing a computer to a neuron, the keyboard
would be equivalent to
A. the soma
B. the axon
C. the dendrites
D. the terminal buttons
____ 24) Strict behaviorists would be most sympathetic to which one of the following statements?
A. Human behavior is primarily caused by inherited factors.
B. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
C. Human behavior is primarily caused by equal contributions of inherited and environmental factors.
D. No one really knows what the primary causes for human behavior are.
____ 25) Experimenter bias occurs when
A. experimenters explicitly instruct the subjects to behave in a way that will be consistent
with the hypothesis
B. experimenters desire to make a favorable impression on their subjects
C. experimenters' beliefs in their own hypotheses affect either the subjects' behavior or their
observations of the subjects
D. experimenters conduct their studies in a completely objective manner ____ 26) The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A. Wernicke's area
B. the thalamus
C. the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex
D. Broca's area
____ 27) Which of the following is not true regarding commonsense analyses of behavior?
A. they tend to be vague and ambiguous
B. they often tolerate contradictory generalizations
C. they usually involve little effort to verify ideas or detect errors
D. they are typically based on precise definitions and hypotheses
____ 28) Which of the following kinds of studies can truly demonstrate that specific traits are
A. family studies
B. twin studies
C. adoption studies
D. none of the above
____ 29) If you were having problems with depression, which of the following kinds of
psychologists would be the greatest help to you?
A. a developmental psychologist
B. a social psychologist
C. a clinical psychologist
D. an experimental psychologist
____ 30) The conservation of body resources, including blood pressure reduction and the
promotion of digestion, is handled by the
A. somatic division
B. parasympathetic division
C. sympathetic division
D. unsympathetic division