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PsychologyNotes for the Exam.doc

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Dax Urbszat

Psychology Notes1Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward TitcherPsychologists study Englishman who earned his degree under Acrophobia fear of heightsWilhelm wundt Leipzig laboratory Zoophobia fear of animalsfightingStructuralism matinghow hormones affect the brainBased on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into Psychology comes from two Greek wordsits basic elements and investigate how these Psychesoul logos studyelements are related How hearing is related to smelling How they The study of the mindconnect with one anotherIntrospection systematic selfobservation of ones intellectual parents of psychology are the disciplines own conscious experienceof philosophy and physiology FunctionalismWilhelm Wundt German professor 1832 distinguished psychology as a independent discipline based on the belief that psychology should and not a stepladder of philosophy and physiology investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Thus Wilhelm Wundt is known as the founder of psychologyWilliam James1879 first university in research of psychology in had a career in medicine but joined a faculty Leipzig Hence historians have stated that 1879 is the in Harvard university to peruse a career in year of birth for psychology academiaWrote a book principals of psychology According to Wundt1890Did not support structuralistsPrimary focus of psychology was consciousness Functionalists were more interested in how the awareness of immediate experiencepeople adapt their behavior in the real world around themBetween 1883 and 1893 about 24 new Mary Whiton Calkins 1863 1930psychological laboratories were discovered Studied under William Jamesby Wilhelms students First woman to serve as president of the G Stanley Hall 18461924 studied with American psychological association in 1905Wilhelm and important to the contribution of Margaret Floy Washburn18711939psychology in USAFirst woman to receive a PHD in Hall established Americas first research psychology laboratory in psychology at Johns Hopking Wrote a book called The Animal MindUniversity in 1883Second president of the American Driving force behind American psychology Psychological Association in 1921associationAPA Worlds largest organization with over 155Leta Stetter Hollingworth18861939000 membersMental work on adolescent development mental retardation and gifted childrenBattle of the schools begins Structuralism versus First person to use the term gifted to refer Functionalismyoungsters who scored high on intelligence tests First two major schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism entangled in John B Watsonpsychologys first great intellectual battleStated behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based Believed that internal mental events could on the premise that scientific psychology should not be studied scientifically and therefore study only observable behaviorthere was no reason to study themWanted scientists to study behavior they Believed that environmental factors mold could observe directly rather than behavior but also acknowledged that the consciousness biological endowment influences behavior Watson meant that scientific approach can Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead always be disproved and his method of to positive outcomes and hey tend not to studying behavior would be the most repeat responses that lead to neutral or objectivenegative outcomesAll behavior is determined by external Behavior refers to any overt observable response stimuli and no actions are a result of or activity by an organism conscious decisions believed that behavior is not determined by The Humanists Revoltgenetics and is rather made through the environment we live aroundPsychoanalytic theory criticized for its belief that behavior is dominated by primitive Behaviorists eventually came to study and view sexual urges and behaviorism was criticized psychology as studying it by relating behavior with for its preoccupation with the study of simple observable events environment animal behaviorNew school of thought called humanismStimulus any detectable input from the environmentHumanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans started to use animals in laboratories and especially their freedom and their potential studying their behaviors because the for personal growth researches would have more control over the subjects Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow human behavior is governed primarily by each individuals sense of life Humans can request to go home at night whereas or self concept which animals lackanimals can be kept in the laboratory as long as desiredBelieved that to understand peoples behavior you must understand their personal growth Unconscious mental processesGreatest contribution of humanists to psychology Sigmund Freud 18561939Austrian physicianhas been their treatment of psychological problems wanted to treat mental disorderand disordersTreated people with psychological difficulties with a procedure referred to as Psychology Comes of Age As a ProfessionpsychoanalysisStated that psychological disturbances are Applied Psychology the branch of psychology caused by personal conflicts existing at a concerned with everyday practical problems unconscious levelPsychoanalytic theory attempted to explain Clinical psychology branch of psychology personality motivation and mental disorders concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of by focusing on unconscious determinants of psychological problems and disorders behavior Clinical psychology enlightened when World War BF Skinner2 started for soldiers to treat their psychological scarsSupported John BWatson on studying behaviorism of psychologyResearchers complaining that not enough Psychology Adapts The Emergence of study of psychology is going to the scientific Evolutionary Psychologyportion and moreover to clinical psychologyNew organization formed in 1988 called the Evolutionary Psychology examines behavior American Psychological Society APS process in terms of their adaptive value for members which was to study the science of of a species over the course of many generationspsychology Psychology Today Vigorous and DiversifiedPsychology Returns to its RootsNew Definition of Psychology the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitivePsychologists these days are showing more interest processes that underlie it and it is the profession that in consciousness now referred to as cognition and applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to the physiological bases of behaviorpractical problems Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in Second most popular undergraduate degree in acquiring knowledgethe United States 1800 technical journals worldwide publish cognitive theorists argue that psychology research articles on psychology must study internal mental events to fully 13 psychologists are employed at understand behavior universities or collegesElectrical stimulation of the brain could 23 work in schools hospitals clinics police evoke emotional responses such as pleasure department research institutions government and rage in animals James Olds 1956agencies business and industry nursing Right and left halves of the brain are homes counseling and private practicespecialized to handle different types of mental tasks Roger Sperry 1981Research Areas in PsychologyPsychology Broadens its Horizons Increased Psychologists specialize when it comes to do Interest in Cultural Diversityresearch because the discipline has become vast over the years and it is virtually Most psychological research has been impossible to research in all specialties conducted in the United StatesWhite Middle and upper class psychologists Seven major research areas in psychologyuse middle and upper class white males as their subjects 1developmental psychologyCrosscultural research is costly difficult and 2social psychologytime consuming13experimental psychologyCultural comparisons may start stereotypes 4physiological psychologyand prejudice amongst cultures25cognitive psychology6personalityEthnocentrism The tendency to view ones own 7psychometricsgroup as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways 3Four Areas of specialization in Applied PsychologyInterest in cultural trends has increased due to 1clinical psychologyadvances in travel communication and international 2counseling psychologytrade which has brought more people of diverse 3education and school psychologyculture into contact with western psychologists and 4industrial and organization psychologyalso the western world ethnic has become more diverseDifferent between clinical psychology and psychiatry is that clinical psychologists go to graduate school to
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