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Bruce Schneider

- Supported John. B Watson on studying behaviorism of psychology - Believed that internal mental events could not be studied scientifically and therefore there was no reason to study them. - Believed that environmental factors mold behavior but also acknowledged that the biological endowment influences behavior. - Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and hey tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. - All behavior is determined by external stimuli, and no actions are a result of conscious decisions. The Humanists Revolt - Psychoanalytic theory criticized for its belief that behavior is dominated by primitive sexual urges and behaviorism was criticized for its preoccupation with the study of simple animal behavior. - New school of thought called “humanism” - Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. Carl Rogers/ Abraham Maslow- human behavior is governed primarily by each individuals sense of life or self concept (which animals lack). Believed that to understand people’s behavior you must understand their personal growth. -Greatest contribution of humanists to psychology has been their treatment of psychological problems and disorders. Psychology Comes of Age As a Profession Applied Psychology- the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems. Clinical psychology- branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. - Clinical psychology enlightened when World War 2 started for soldiers to treat their psychological scars. - Researchers complaining that not enough study of psychology is going to the scientific portion and moreover to clinical psychology. - New organization formed in 1988 called the American Psychological Society (APS) which was to study the science of psychology. Psychology Returns to its Roots - Psychologists these days are showing more interest in consciousness now referred to as “cognition”) and the physiological bases of behavior. Cognition- refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. - cognitive theorists argue that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand behavior. - Electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals (James Olds 1956)
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