PSY100 Exam Review Notes
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY201H5
Professor
Bruce Schneider
Semester
Fall

Description
CHANAPS Tuesday, Nov/25/2003 - Notes from Lab Exam Review Seminar ~ Semester 1 FORMAT Each Response will be graded out of 8 points: 4 Points – Content i.e. Relevance/Depth 4 Points – Literacy i.e. Expression/Organization Total of 4 Questions PASTE XAM QUESTION: 1. (2 Years Old) Describe the importance of the classical conditioning phase of training Sniffy to press a lever under continuous reinforcement conditions. What criterion did we adopt to decide if Sniffy had finished that phase? How would you decide that with a real rat? 2. Describe how practice effects and the difficulty of the distraction task were controlled for in the motor skills experiment. What were the reasons for controlling these variables? 3. Why are subjects asked to stare at a fixation point during the hemispheric specialization tasks? How is this critical to test the degree of lateralized function? 4. How did we measure the effect of distraction on eye hand co-ordination in the motor skills experiment? Describe the means by which we controlled for progressive and random error. Michael Thomas. Email: [email protected] Sample Questions Available: http://www.utm.utoronto.ca/~w3psylab/SLTQ.html Datasphere? Notes from Labs: LAB 1: SCIENTIFIM ETHOD ANDSTATISTICALANALYSIS G ENERA: “Psychology is the scientific study of behavior.” Scientific = Scientific Method Behavior = directly measurable. TERMINOLOGY:  Counterbalancing – (i.e. abba) technique which ensures that all conditions benefit equally from practice, as you progress through the experiment.  Consider: Why do we counterbalance? (Because of “Progressive Error” i.e. Practice Effect)  Independent Variable (x): modifies  Dependant Variable (y): measures of success. We measure “y” 2x, once w/”x” and once without “x” (i.e. Pre-Test/Post Test Method). Used to test for validity  Control Variable (z): Controls Extraneous circumstances.  Progressive Error – Learning from practice. Dartboard Example.  Random Error – unforeseen factors. Golf ball Example  Eliminated through finding means (avg), performing many trials, and eliminating outliers 1/8 CHANAPS VARIABLE:  Independent Variable: Level of Distraction  Dependant Variable: Distance on target (measured in mm). Measured Eye-hand coordination  Control:  Progressive Error (Remedy – Counterbalancing)  Random Error (Remedy – Finding Means/Avgs.) What is the effect of distraction on the distance traced on target when controlling for random and progressive error. LAB 2 – COGNITIVN EUROPHYSIOLOGY– LEFT V. IGHTH EMISPHEREFUNCTIONS G ENERA:  Which side is better at verbal or spatial tasks  The effect of stimulus type, visual field, and serial position on accuracy while controlling for the distance from the fixation point and keyboard hunting.  Design 2 x 2 x 4 THE D ESIG:  Subjects asked to report 4 Characters that appear on either the left or right of a fixation point, and these characters may be symbols or letters VARIABLE::  Independent Variable:  Type of Stimulus (verbal vs. symbol)  Side of Screen (LVF vs. RVF)  Serial Position/Order (1, 2, 3, or 4)  Dependant Variable: Number correct (Accuracy)  Control Variable:  1. Distance from center fixation point.  computers moved to 3” from back of desk  subjects keep chin on front edge of desk  Keyboard Hunting (hunt and peck)  letters/symbols grouped around center of keyboard.  all conditions have the same (hunt and peck time) M AINH YPOTHES:S  If Verbal is Left Brained….  Verbal in RVF than LVF, symbol is better in LVF than RVF PHENOMENA :  Serial Position Effect: st  Primary Effect: Tendency to recall the 1 few items presented in a list  Secondary Effect: Tendency to recall the last few items presented in a list. 2/8 CHANAPS  Fobial Vision:  Must avoid looking directly at stimulus  If Real, cheats would be thrown out.  “Fiber Optic” Style Contacts  Split Brain Research:  Discovery:  Patients Prone to Epileptic Seizures  Surgically Remove Lesion or sever corpus colloasum  Discovered specialization phenomenon by accident.  Experiment:  Object placed in subject’s right hand, behind his back  Subject asked to locate object in covered box.  Subject asked to name the object. Result: can locate/name correctly.  Repeated w/Left Hand. Result: can locate, but not name.  Motor Cortex Contralaterality  Same w/Language Skills?  In Most People: language processed by left, spatial by right (Note: Typical of 95% of right handed males and 70% of left handed.) Verbal # Correct Symbol LVF RVF (Right Hem.) (Left Hem.) LAB 3 – OLYGRAPH SIMULATION ANCLASSICALCONDITIONING POLICEC ARE XAMPL:  Received speeding ticket from cops hiding behind hydro plant  Now when passing, automatically (subconsciously) slow down to avoid getting a ticket. (learned behavior).  Drive by it every day, only to find no cop, but you still slow down (the learned behavior is difficult to extinguish). BACKGROUND : Pavlov Russian Physiologist: 3/8 CHANAPS  Was studying digestion (he was not a psychologist) through dog’s salivation pattern.  The dogs were hooked to a machine, and their salivary glands surgically altered, measuring the amount of saliva produced from food powder being delivered onto their tongue.  Same dogs were in the lab everyday, and the began to salivate before the food came out.  The dog learns the sound of the food being prepared.  In Pavlov’s experiment, a clicking sounds was used.  The dogs would listen for the clicks.  Experimented with bells, etc.  Became known as Classical or Pavlonian Conditioning TERMINOLOGY:  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):  Unconditioned Response (UCR):  Conditioned Stimulus (CS):  Conditioned Response (CR): Note: On exam, must use unabridged form at least once before using abbreviations. POLYGRAPH –  Measures Physiological responses – i.e. Heart Rate, etc.  We can measure physiological change by measuring the electrical conditioning of your skin.  If we shock you, or startle you, you see a drop in the electrical resistance of your skin..  Conductivity vs. Resistance  Drop in Electrical Resistance – Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). PHENOMENA :  Orienting Response –  Attentional or Physiological response to novel stimulus.  When you get excited, nervous, etc. the hair on your neck may rise, heart rate increase, etc.  Flight of Fight Response  Adaptive Significance  Habituation 
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