Tuesday, Nov/25/2003 - Notes from Lab Exam Review Seminar ~ Semester 1
Each Response will be graded out of 8 points:
4 Points – Content i.e. Relevance/Depth
4 Points – Literacy i.e. Expression/Organization
Total of 4 Questions
PASTE XAM QUESTION:
1. (2 Years Old) Describe the importance of the classical conditioning phase of
training Sniffy to press a lever under continuous reinforcement conditions. What
criterion did we adopt to decide if Sniffy had finished that phase? How would you
decide that with a real rat?
2. Describe how practice effects and the difficulty of the distraction task were
controlled for in the motor skills experiment. What were the reasons for
controlling these variables?
3. Why are subjects asked to stare at a fixation point during the hemispheric
specialization tasks? How is this critical to test the degree of lateralized function?
4. How did we measure the effect of distraction on eye hand co-ordination in the
motor skills experiment? Describe the means by which we controlled for
progressive and random error.
Michael Thomas. Email: [email protected]
Sample Questions Available: http://www.utm.utoronto.ca/~w3psylab/SLTQ.html
Notes from Labs:
LAB 1: SCIENTIFIM ETHOD ANDSTATISTICALANALYSIS
“Psychology is the scientific study of behavior.”
Scientific = Scientific Method
Behavior = directly measurable.
Counterbalancing – (i.e. abba) technique which ensures that all conditions benefit
equally from practice, as you progress through the experiment.
Consider: Why do we counterbalance? (Because of “Progressive Error” i.e.
Independent Variable (x): modifies
Dependant Variable (y): measures of success. We measure “y” 2x, once w/”x”
and once without “x” (i.e. Pre-Test/Post Test Method). Used to test for validity
Control Variable (z): Controls Extraneous circumstances.
Progressive Error – Learning from practice. Dartboard Example.
Random Error – unforeseen factors. Golf ball Example
Eliminated through finding means (avg), performing many trials, and
Independent Variable: Level of Distraction
Dependant Variable: Distance on target (measured in mm). Measured Eye-hand
Progressive Error (Remedy – Counterbalancing)
Random Error (Remedy – Finding Means/Avgs.)
What is the effect of distraction on the distance traced on target when controlling for
random and progressive error.
LAB 2 – COGNITIVN EUROPHYSIOLOGY– LEFT V. IGHTH EMISPHEREFUNCTIONS
Which side is better at verbal or spatial tasks
The effect of stimulus type, visual field, and serial position on accuracy while
controlling for the distance from the fixation point and keyboard hunting.
Design 2 x 2 x 4
THE D ESIG:
Subjects asked to report 4 Characters that appear on either the left or right of a
fixation point, and these characters may be symbols or letters
Type of Stimulus (verbal vs. symbol)
Side of Screen (LVF vs. RVF)
Serial Position/Order (1, 2, 3, or 4)
Dependant Variable: Number correct (Accuracy)
1. Distance from center fixation point.
computers moved to 3” from back of desk
subjects keep chin on front edge of desk
Keyboard Hunting (hunt and peck)
letters/symbols grouped around center of keyboard.
all conditions have the same (hunt and peck time)
M AINH YPOTHES:S
If Verbal is Left Brained….
Verbal in RVF than LVF, symbol is better in LVF than RVF
Serial Position Effect: st
Primary Effect: Tendency to recall the 1 few items presented in a list
Secondary Effect: Tendency to recall the last few items presented in a list.
Must avoid looking directly at stimulus
If Real, cheats would be thrown out.
“Fiber Optic” Style Contacts
Split Brain Research:
Patients Prone to Epileptic Seizures
Surgically Remove Lesion or sever corpus colloasum
Discovered specialization phenomenon by accident.
Object placed in subject’s right hand, behind his back
Subject asked to locate object in covered box.
Subject asked to name the object. Result: can locate/name correctly.
Repeated w/Left Hand. Result: can locate, but not name.
Motor Cortex Contralaterality
Same w/Language Skills?
In Most People: language processed by left, spatial by right (Note: Typical of
95% of right handed males and 70% of left handed.)
(Right Hem.) (Left Hem.)
LAB 3 – OLYGRAPH SIMULATION ANCLASSICALCONDITIONING
POLICEC ARE XAMPL:
Received speeding ticket from cops hiding behind hydro plant
Now when passing, automatically (subconsciously) slow down to avoid getting a
ticket. (learned behavior).
Drive by it every day, only to find no cop, but you still slow down (the learned
behavior is difficult to extinguish).
Pavlov Russian Physiologist:
Was studying digestion (he was not a psychologist) through dog’s salivation
The dogs were hooked to a machine, and their salivary glands surgically altered,
measuring the amount of saliva produced from food powder being delivered onto
Same dogs were in the lab everyday, and the began to salivate before the food
The dog learns the sound of the food being prepared.
In Pavlov’s experiment, a clicking sounds was used.
The dogs would listen for the clicks.
Experimented with bells, etc.
Became known as Classical or Pavlonian Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):
Unconditioned Response (UCR):
Conditioned Stimulus (CS):
Conditioned Response (CR):
Note: On exam, must use unabridged form at least once before using abbreviations.
Measures Physiological responses – i.e. Heart Rate, etc.
We can measure physiological change by measuring the electrical conditioning of
If we shock you, or startle you, you see a drop in the electrical resistance of your
Conductivity vs. Resistance
Drop in Electrical Resistance – Galvanic Skin Response (GSR).
Orienting Response –
Attentional or Physiological response to novel stimulus.
When you get excited, nervous, etc. the hair on your neck may rise, heart rate
Flight of Fight Response