Tuesday, Apr/6/2004 - Notes from Lab Exam Review Seminar ~ Semester 2
Each Response will be graded out of 8 points:
4 Points – Content i.e. Relevance/Depth
4 Points – Literacy i.e. Expression/Organization
Total of 4 Questions
1. (2 Years Old) Describe the importance of the classical conditioning phase of
training Sniffy to press a lever under continuous reinforcement conditions. What
criterion did we adopt to decide if Sniffy had finished that phase? How would you
decide that with a real rat?
2. Describe how practice effects and the difficulty of the distraction task were
controlled for in the motor skills experiment. What were the reasons for
controlling these variables?
3. Why are subjects asked to stare at a fixation point during the hemispheric
specialization tasks? How is this critical to test the degree of lateralized function?
4. How did we measure the effect of distraction on eye hand co-ordination in the
motor skills experiment? Describe the means by which we controlled for
progressive and random error.
Michael Thomas. Email: [email protected]
Sample Questions Available: http://www.utm.utoronto.ca/~w3psylab/SLTQ.html
Notes from Labs:
LAB7: THEP SYCHOLOGY OR EADING
Accessing info in LTM
Vocab, Word Knowledge (Matching – Meaning)
Integrating text info with that from LTM
(Process of) Understanding, Comprehension.
Inferences drawn from text (Literal Meaning/”Metaphorical”)
What can you deduce (abc)
Read between the lines
Recalling new text info in STM
Test yourself – reinforcement
COGNITIVM ODEL– KINTSCH ANVAN DIJK(1978)
Most influential theoretical model of comprehension processes.
4 Cognitive Rescources necessary for reading and understanding:
1. Attention – a. Selection of important info
b. Good Readers, know what to pay attention to.
2. Consciousness – Reader’s awareness of understanding (or not)
3. Decision Making (Key) – Inference and Integration for LTM (i.e context – too
vs. two or red vs. green in exp.)
4. Memory – storage capacity and response production (verbal, written, etc)
Any decrease in ability leads to decrease in performance (i.e. capacity dictates
performance – ability at each stage determines performance).
Familiarity in text eases comprehension. i.e. Simple Material – Grade 8 vs.
Readers with poor selection strategies have more difficulty.
Having a decided reading goal and texts with conventional structure increase
readability and comprehension.
Main Points of the Lab:
1. Identify component skills of reading comprehension.
2. Correlational Study
a. If it isn’t a component skill, it won’t be correlated.
b. Measure component skills and overall reading ability to see
how they correlate.
3. Describe Tasks and what they measure
Implied info that is not necessarily stated.
Task asks you to read 2 sentences and then asks if a certain word was present.
Was it there? 1st or 2nd word?
Was it implied?
Measure accuracy (#correct).
Did not measure key – RT when answering “no” when it was not.
Measure of Decision Making Skills
Cued Recall –
Study 40 pairs of words (3 seconds each).
Shown first word, asked to type in second as fast as you can.
Measure speed and accuracy.
Measure of Memory Skills
Read 4 paragraphs, 1 @ a time.
After each paragraph, there are 3 ?s involving:
Main point (attention, integration)
Specific Detail (Memory)
Inferences drawn from text (Decision Making ) Based on real SAT test items, the 4 paragraphs reflect skills expected at
Measure of Reading Comprehension skills (all but metacomprehension
Personal evaluation of one’s own reading abililty.
Measure awareness of how well you understand while reading.
22 ?s (scale answers: disagree/strongly)
capacity – need ability
anxiety – level of stress
achievenment – importance of reading to you (lawyer vs. sketch artist)
Task – what is involved in reading
Regulation – how do you regulate reading when not understanding?
Locus – locus of control: internal/external
o Locus – lay blame of credit to things that happen to you.
Strategy – awareness of how to improve reading ability.
Questionnaire widely used.
Calculate average sore in each category for reading ability.
Measure of consciousness.
inference – ount number correct out of 16.
Cued recall – number corret in trials 48-77 (out of 30) and trials 80-139 (out of
SAT – each paragraph, write down reading time and number correct…..????
Metacomprehension – add up total scores for each of the 7 categories.