Lecture notes for the entire semester from September to December; Red writing are things said by professor.

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY210H5
Professor
E Glenn Schellenberg
Semester
Fall

Description
Introto Developmental Psych September-08-09 5:47PM { Historicalperspectives Darwin(babybiographer):hisinterestin: Phylogeny:evolution Ontogeny:development(individual) Systematicrecords Makingdetailsabouthischildinasystematicwayandrecordingthem Veryanecdotal { Theoreticalperspectives Biological Maturationaltheories ArnoldGesell-mostimportantpersoninthisarea Pre-arrangedscheme Heestablishednorms Limitedtophysiologicalgrowth Ethologicaltheories Takemoreconsiderationofexperience Evolutionaryoriginsofbehaviour Z Adaptivesurvivalvalue Z Imprinting(Lorenz) Criticalperiod-timeindevelopmentwhenlearningcantakeplace Sensitiveperiod-timeindevelopmentwhenlearningismoreeasyor likely Modularitytheories Phrenology Psychodynamic Psychosexualtheory Freud Personalityhasthreecomponents-id,ego,superego Developmentinfluencedbyearlyformsofchildhoodsexuality Libido-innatesexualdrive;focusofgratificationchangesoverdevelopment Toomuch ortoolittlegratificationgetfixatedatastageindevelopment Psychosocialtheory Erikson Personality:8stagesofadaptedfunctioning(pg.12) Socialcontextconsidered Eachstage hasa uniquecrisisorchallenge Learning Relativelypermanentchangesinbehaviourthatresultfromexperience Behaviourism Watson,Skinner,Pavlov Classicalandoperantconditioning--(reinforced-morelikelytooccur;punished-less likely) US(food)-->UR (salivating) CS(bell)-->CR(salivating) (connectingarrowsbwUSandCS and UR and CR) SocialLearningCognitiveTheory Bandura Learningthroughobservationandimitation Cognitive-Developmental Piaget Childhasactiveroleinunderstandingtheworld Qualitativereorganisationofunderstandingatthedifferentstages www.notesolution.com Qualitativereorganisationofunderstandingatthedifferentstages Information-processingtheories Computeranalogy Sensorymemory-->short-termmemory-->multipleintelligences { Psychologicalresearch 1. Definitions i. IV 1) Manipulated.. ii. DV www.notesolution.com 1) Manipulated.. ii. DV 1) Measured iii. Operational... 1) Specification iv. Validity 1) Constructvalidity 2) Concurrentvalidity v. Reliability 1) Test-retest 2. Measurement i. Systematicobservation a) CONS b) Observerbias c) Observerinfluencesbehaviourofsubjectbeingstudiedparticipantreactivity 1) Naturalisticobservation a) Observe... b) PROS i) Real-lifebehaviours,antecedents,consequences c) CONS i) Possibleconfoundingvariablesbecausesituationisnotcontrolled;so associationobservedmayactuallybeduetoathirdvariable ii) Rarebehavioursmaynotoccurduringthetimeperiodofobservation 2) Structuredobservation a) Behaviours... b) PRO i) Researcherhasmorecontrol ii) Rarebehavioursmorelikelybecauseexperimenterisincontrol c) CON i) Kidsmaynotact as theydoin reallife ii. Createtasks*** 1) PRO a) Researcherhasmorecontrol* 2) CON a) Taskand contextmaybetoo artificial iii. Self-reports 1) Questionnaires a) CON-kidsthatareunabletoread 2) Interviews a) canbe structured;samesequenceofquestionsadministeredorallytoall participants i) PRO One. Quickwaytocollectdata ii) CON One. Childunderstands?Respondsaccordingtoperceivedexpectations ofresearcher b) Clinicalinterview-notstructured;openended(questionsmodifiedaccordingto childsresponse) i) PRO One. Interactive-->novelinsights ii) CON One. Cannotmakesystematiccomparisonsbecauseeveryonemaybe gettingadifferentsetofquestions Two. Questionsyoufollowuponmaybeinfluencedbyresearchersbias iv. Meta-analysis 1) Statistical... www.notesolution.com
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