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Test 1 review guide.docx

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Ulrich Schimmack

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Lecture 1: Goal of personality psychology: to classify and examine the causes and consequences of individual differences Approaches: -Ideographic (person-centered) -Nomothetic (variable-cented) Difference between personality psych and other disciplines -personality psych assumes people are different rather than that everyone is the same Lecture 2: Measurement error: variance in a personality measure that is not due to actual individual differences in the trait being measured Reliability: -the amount of variance not due to measurement error in a personality measure -estimating reliability -retest reliability: repeating the same measure over after some time has passed since the first measurement (OVER TIME) -Internal consistency: asking about the same construct with many similar questions or include many similar items on test (ALL AT ONCE) Trait: a general disposition to feel, think, or act in a particular way across different situations Aggregation: averaging several behavior or several answers to similar questions on a test to reduce measurement error Validity: -a measure is valid if it measure what it is intended to measure (ex. A rule is a valid measure of height but not weight) -construct validation: provide evidence for validity -convergent validity: two independent measures of the same construct are positively correlated -discriminant validity: two measures of different constructs are weakly correlated -predictive validity: if the construct intelligence predicts income, than an IQ test is valid if it predicts income -face validity: test questions appear to reflect the intended construct (ex. “I often feel depressed” as a measure of depression) Problem of generalizability across participants: results in one sample may be different from those in another sample (ex. Height-weight correlation for famous women in comparison to normal women) Correlation coefficient (r): varies from -1 to 1; indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables Effect size -reflects the strength of an independent sample zise -explained variance (r ): how much of the correlation can be explained by the results -Binomial Effect size display (.5 + r/2) Standard Scores (z-scores) (Score –Mean Score) / Standard deviation Causality -Bermuda Triangle of Causality: r =p1 + p2 +(p3 * p4) -meaning of arrows, squares/rectangles, and cricles/ovals -double headed arrows: correlation -single headed arrows: causality -squares/rectangles: observed variables -circles/ovals: unobserved variables Lecture 4/5: Methods of Personality Assessment (advantages and disadvantages) -S-Data: Self Reports +cheap +quick -cannot be used with individuals and in situation that do not meet the assumptions that people are ABLE and WILLING to report personality accurately (children below a certain age lack the self- knowledge. Inmates during a parole violation have a reason to respond incorrectly. Questions about sensitive issues may make people respond inaccurately to avoid embarrassment) -I-data: Informant Reports +cheap +quick -like self-reports cannot be used with individuals and in situation that do not meet the assumptions that people are ABLE and WILLING to report personality accurately (ex. Mothers saying that their son being accused of murder couldn’t even hurt a fly) -informant may have limited knowledge about some personality traits (characteristics), especially those about internal states (thoughts and feelings) -O-data: observations +it’s what we see. No bias from the person +it examines peoples behaviors and experiences in the real world rather than in artificial lab settings -cant observe inner thoughts and feelings -expensive -SO-data: self-observations (experience sampling, diaries) +method does not assume that people have accurate memory of their behaviors or feelings +provides a better way of examining the joint contribution of situation and personality on behavior +it examines peoples behaviors and experiences in the real world rather than in artificial lab settings -expensive -can’t be done for long (too intrusive) thus behavior in a short time may be atypical (ex. you act differently during exam week rather than during another week) -Reasons for invalid self-reports 1. Differences in understanding of the item 2. Differences in the use of the scale (response styles) 3. Intentional misreporting (social desirable responding, other deception) 4. Unintentional (unconscious) misreporting (repression, self-deception) 5. Careless responding Convergent Validity across Methods -Self informant Correlations (strangers, acquaintances, spouses): self-informant agreement st increases quickly over the 1 moths that people get to know each other, but don’t increase much after a period of a few months. Also different correlations between informants because you act differently in different situations. Self-ratings and informant-ratings have a moderate convergent validity (.3-.7). self- ratings and informant ratings are about equally valid -Diary study: participants complete a diary at the end of the day for several weeks -experience sampling: participants report their experiences or behaviors in a particular situation several times a day for a few days or weeks -Diary, experience sampling, informant reports, self-reports all show moderate convergent validity together Sources of disagreement between self-ratings and informant ratings: -different interpretation of questions -informants may not have all the information available to them Brunswick’s Lens Model Cues (ex. Physical attractiveness) Cue Validity (correlation between actual trait and cue) Implicit Personality Theories (correlation between cue and informant ratings) SPECFIC Cues of Big Five ratings by Strangers as informants -Valid Cues: Extraversion: +attractiveness, +nonverbal behaviors -Invalid cues (unpleasant voice) SPECFIC Cues of Big Five ratings by Observers based on dorm room visits -Valid Cues: Openness (highest accuracy at about r=.4): + varied books, magazines and cds Conscientiousness: - cluttered; +neat, organized SPECFIC Cues of Big Five ratings by recordings of sounds -Valid Cues: Conscientiousness: +attending class; -swearing Neuroticism: +arguing -even peoples “sound environment” provide some valid info about personality -extraversion was judged most reliably, presumable based on social situations -not good as a personality measure Dimension with the highest agreement in the various studies (dorms, Ear, roommates, video), etc. -video: Extraversion -Dorm room: Openness -Roommate: conscientiousness -EAR (sound study): Extraversion Lecture 6 Structure of Personality -Factor analysis: complex procedure to group variables. Moderate to strongly correlated variables are grouped together (sign doesn’t matter). The factor which has the characteristics bunched together under is something unobservable that makes it more likely where if you have 1 characteristic, that you will have another -# of factors and ordering of factors are arbitrary -factor analysis doesn’t tell us what the unobserved casual factors are -Factor loading: the correlation between a factor and an observed trait -Universality: the Big Five are based on an analysis of the relation between trait words in the English language. Similar factors emerge in other languages. Openness received the weakest support for universality -Correlations between Big Fi
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